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dc.contributor.authorPiksa, Marta
dc.contributor.authorFortuna, Wojciech
dc.contributor.authorLian, Cheng
dc.contributor.authorGacka, Małgorzata
dc.contributor.authorSamuel, Ifor D. W.
dc.contributor.authorMatczyszyn, Katarzyna
dc.contributor.authorPawlik, Krzysztof J.
dc.identifier.citationPiksa , M , Fortuna , W , Lian , C , Gacka , M , Samuel , I D W , Matczyszyn , K & Pawlik , K J 2023 , ' Treatment of antibiotic-resistant bacteria colonizing diabetic foot ulcers by OLED induced antimicrobial photodynamic therapy ' , Scientific Reports , vol. 13 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 293333034
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 3b444859-323d-4573-ab8c-854203b67847
dc.identifier.otherJisc: 1299318
dc.identifier.otherpublisher-id: s41598-023-39363-4
dc.identifier.othermanuscript: 39363
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85168905677
dc.descriptionKM, KJP and IDWS were supported by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Sklodowska-Curie grant (Agreement N°764837) and NCN Opus Grant No. 2019/35/B/ST4/03280.en
dc.description.abstractWe evaluate the efficacy of antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy (APDT) for inactivating a variety of antibiotic-resistant clinical strains from diabetic foot ulcers. Here we are focused on APDT based on organic light-emitting diodes (OLED). The wound swabs from ten patients diagnosed with diabetic foot ulcers were collected and 32 clinical strains comprising 22 bacterial species were obtained. The isolated strains were identified with the use of mass spectrometry coupled with a protein profile database and tested for antibiotic susceptibility. 74% of isolated bacterial strains exhibited adaptive antibiotic resistance to at least one antibiotic. All strains were subjected to the APDT procedure using an OLED as a light source and 16 µM methylene blue as a photosensitizer. APDT using the OLED led to a large reduction in all cases. For pathogenic bacteria, the reduction ranged from 1.1-log to > 8 log (Klebsiella aerogenes, Enterobacter cloaca, Staphylococcus hominis) even for high antibiotic resistance (MRSA 5-log reduction). Opportunistic bacteria showed a range from 0.4-log reduction for Citrobacter koseri to > 8 log reduction for Kocuria rhizophila. These results show that OLED-driven APDT is effective against pathogens and opportunistic bacteria regardless of drug resistance.
dc.relation.ispartofScientific Reportsen
dc.rightsCopyright © The Author(s) 2023. Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit
dc.subjectSDG 3 - Good Health and Well-beingen
dc.titleTreatment of antibiotic-resistant bacteria colonizing diabetic foot ulcers by OLED induced antimicrobial photodynamic therapyen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Organic Semiconductor Centreen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Physics and Astronomyen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Centre for Biophotonicsen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Condensed Matter Physicsen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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