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dc.contributor.authorMelby, Katherine
dc.contributor.authorFarokhnia, Mehdi
dc.contributor.authorTolomeo, Serenella
dc.contributor.authorBhad, Roshan
dc.contributor.authorBramnes, Jørgen G
dc.contributor.authorBaldacchino, Alexander Mario
dc.contributor.authorRao, Ravindra
dc.contributor.authorKandasami, Gomathinayagam
dc.contributor.authorButner, Jenna L
dc.contributor.authorPhan, Vicky
dc.contributor.authorFonseca, Francina
dc.contributor.authorRafei, Parnian
dc.contributor.authorJiang, Long
dc.contributor.authorGeorgios, Tzeferakos
dc.contributor.authorDom, Geert
dc.identifier.citationMelby , K , Farokhnia , M , Tolomeo , S , Bhad , R , Bramnes , J G , Baldacchino , A M , Rao , R , Kandasami , G , Butner , J L , Phan , V , Fonseca , F , Rafei , P , Jiang , L , Georgios , T & Dom , G 2023 , ' International perspectives on opioid use disorder and treatment : results from an online convenience sample ' , Heroin Addiction and Related Clinical Problems , vol. Ahead of Print .en
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 293280212
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: ec045c6e-945f-4d40-8f19-9c1b6f4eda24
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-5388-7376/work/141643507
dc.descriptionFunding: M.F. is an employee of the US Federal Government and is supported by National Institutes of Health (NIH) intramural funding (ZIA-DA000635 and ZIA-AA000218).en
dc.description.abstractOpioid use disorder (OUD) is a chronic disease characterised by periods of abstinence and episodic return to use, that is associated with enormous socioeconomic burden and great risk for morbidity and mortality. Implementation of national opioid agonist treatment programs (OAT) has been an important strategy to respond to the opioid crisis tailored to each region. Heterogeneity across such programs and policies introduces a challenge in terms of harmonisation but also an opportunity for mutual learning and improvement. In this study, a convenience sample of 15 addiction medicine professionals were invited to complete an online questionnaire focused on challenges and strategies in delivering OAT in different countries and regions. Although national opioid treatment programs (OTP) were available in all but one country, important barriers were identified, and treatment coverage was overall low. In some countries, political and legislative changes are needed to improve public health responses and community attitudes towards persons with opioid use disorder (PWOUD). Providing evidence-based information to clinicians and individuals, strengthening the education of health professionals, and minimising stigma at different levels are seen as important steps that national and international institutions must take to address the opioid crisis
dc.relation.ispartofHeroin Addiction and Related Clinical Problemsen
dc.rightsCopyright © The Author(s) 2023. Pacini Editore Medicina and AU-CNS Press. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (, which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact
dc.subjectInternational perspectiveen
dc.subjectOpioid use disorderen
dc.subjectOpioid agonist treatmenten
dc.subjectRA0421 Public health. Hygiene. Preventive Medicineen
dc.subjectRM Therapeutics. Pharmacologyen
dc.subjectSDG 3 - Good Health and Well-beingen
dc.titleInternational perspectives on opioid use disorder and treatment : results from an online convenience sampleen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Medicineen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Centre for Minorities Research (CMR)en
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Population and Behavioural Science Divisionen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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