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dc.contributor.authorRuffio, Jean-Baptiste
dc.contributor.authorKonopacky, Quinn M.
dc.contributor.authorBarman, Travis
dc.contributor.authorMacintosh, Bruce
dc.contributor.authorHoch, Kielan K. W.
dc.contributor.authorDe Rosa, Robert J.
dc.contributor.authorWang, Jason J.
dc.contributor.authorCzekala, Ian
dc.contributor.authorMarois, Christian
dc.identifier.citationRuffio , J-B , Konopacky , Q M , Barman , T , Macintosh , B , Hoch , K K W , De Rosa , R J , Wang , J J , Czekala , I & Marois , C 2021 , ' Deep exploration of the planets HR 8799 b, c, and d with moderate-resolution spectroscopy ' , Astronomical Journal , vol. 162 , no. 6 , 290 .
dc.identifier.otherBibCode: 2021AJ....162..290R
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-1483-8811/work/141643351
dc.descriptionFunding: J.-B.R. acknowledges support from the David and Ellen Lee Prize Postdoctoral Fellowship. The research was supported by grants from NSF, including AST-1411868 (J.-B.R., B.M.) and 1614492 (T.S.B.). Material presented in this work is supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grants/Contracts/Agreements No. NNX17AB63G (Q.M.K., T.S.B., and K.K.W.) issued through the Astrophysics Division of the Science Mission Directorate and NNX15AD95G (J.-B.R., R.J.D.R.).en
dc.description.abstractThe four directly imaged planets orbiting the star HR 8799 are an ideal laboratory to probe atmospheric physics and formation models. We present more than a decade's worth of Keck/OSIRIS observations of these planets, which represent the most detailed look at their atmospheres to date by its resolution and signal-to-noise ratio. We present the first direct detection of HR 8799 d, the second-closest known planet to the star, at moderate spectral resolution with Keck/OSIRIS (K band; R ≈ 4000). Additionally, we uniformly analyze new and archival OSIRIS data (H and K band) of HR 8799 b, c, and d. First, we show detections of water (H2O) and carbon monoxide (CO) in the three planets and discuss the ambiguous case of methane (CH4) in the atmosphere of HR 8799 b. Then, we report radial-velocity (RV) measurements for each of the three planets. The RV measurement of HR 8799 d is consistent with predictions made assuming coplanarity and orbital stability of the HR 8799 planetary system. Finally, we perform a uniform atmospheric analysis on the OSIRIS data, published photometric points, and low-resolution spectra. We do not infer any significant deviation from the stellar value of the carbon-to-oxygen ratio (C/O) of the three planets, which therefore does not yet yield definitive information about the location or method of formation. However, constraining the C/O for all the HR 8799 planets is a milestone for any multiplanet system, and particularly important for large, widely separated gas giants with uncertain formation processes.
dc.relation.ispartofAstronomical Journalen
dc.subjectExtrasolar gaseous giant planetsen
dc.subjectExoplanet atmospheric compositionen
dc.subjectDirect imagingen
dc.subjectExoplanet formationen
dc.subjectQB Astronomyen
dc.subjectQC Physicsen
dc.titleDeep exploration of the planets HR 8799 b, c, and d with moderate-resolution spectroscopyen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Physics and Astronomyen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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