Optogenetic stimulation probes with single-neuron resolution based on organic LEDs monolithically integrated on CMOS
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The use of optogenetic stimulation to evoke neuronal activity in targeted neural populations—enabled by opsins with fast kinetics, high sensitivity and cell-type and subcellular specificity—is a powerful tool in neuroscience. However, to interface with the opsins, deep-brain light delivery systems are required that match the scale of the spatial and temporal control offered by the molecular actuators. Here we show that organic light-emitting diodes can be combined with complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor technology to create bright, actively multiplexed emissive elements. We create implantable shanks in which 1,024 individually addressable organic light-emitting diode pixels with a 24.5 µm pitch are integrated with active complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor drive and control circuitry. This integration is enabled by controlled electrode conditioning, monolithic deposition of the organic light-emitting diodes and optimized thin-film encapsulation. The resulting probes can be used to access brain regions as deep as 5 mm and selectively activate individual neurons with millisecond-level precision in mice.
Taal , A J , Uguz , I , Hillebrandt , S , Moon , C-K , Andino-Pavlovsky , V , Choi , J , Keum , C , Deisseroth , K , Gather , M C & Shepard , K L 2023 , ' Optogenetic stimulation probes with single-neuron resolution based on organic LEDs monolithically integrated on CMOS ' , Nature Electronics , vol. 6 , pp. 669-679 . https://doi.org/10.1038/s41928-023-01013-y
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DescriptionFunding: This work was supported in part by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) under contract N6600117C4012, by the National Institutes of Health under grant U01NS090596, by the Leverhulme Trust (RPG-2017-231) and by the Alexander von Humboldt Stiftung (Humboldt-Professorship to M.C.G.). This work was performed in part at the Columbia Nano Initiative cleanroom facility, at the CUNY Advanced Science Research Center Nanofabrication Facility, and at the Singh Center for Nanotechnology, part of the National Nanotechnology Coordinated Infrastructure Program, which is supported by the National Science Foundation grant NNCI-2025608. C.-K.M. acknowledges funding from the European Commission through a Marie-Skłodowska Curie Individual Fellowship (101029807).
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