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dc.contributor.authorAmele, Sarah
dc.contributor.authorKibuchi, Eliud
dc.contributor.authorMcCabe, Ronan
dc.contributor.authorPearce, Anna
dc.contributor.authorHenery, Paul
dc.contributor.authorHainey, Kirsten
dc.contributor.authorFagbamigbe, Adeniyi
dc.contributor.authorKurdi, Amanj
dc.contributor.authorMcCowan, Colin
dc.contributor.authorSimpson, Colin R
dc.contributor.authorDibben, Chris
dc.contributor.authorBuchanan, Duncan
dc.contributor.authorDemou, Evangelia
dc.contributor.authorAlmaghrabi, Fatima
dc.contributor.authorAnghelescu, Gina
dc.contributor.authorTaylor, Harry
dc.contributor.authorTibble, Holly
dc.contributor.authorRudan, Igor
dc.contributor.authorNazroo, James
dc.contributor.authorBécares, Laia
dc.contributor.authorDaines, Luke
dc.contributor.authorIrizar, Patricia
dc.contributor.authorJayacodi, Sandra
dc.contributor.authorPattaro, Serena
dc.contributor.authorSheikh, Aziz
dc.contributor.authorKatikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal
dc.identifier.citationAmele , S , Kibuchi , E , McCabe , R , Pearce , A , Henery , P , Hainey , K , Fagbamigbe , A , Kurdi , A , McCowan , C , Simpson , C R , Dibben , C , Buchanan , D , Demou , E , Almaghrabi , F , Anghelescu , G , Taylor , H , Tibble , H , Rudan , I , Nazroo , J , Bécares , L , Daines , L , Irizar , P , Jayacodi , S , Pattaro , S , Sheikh , A & Katikireddi , S V 2023 , ' Ethnic inequalities in positive SARS-CoV-2 tests, infection prognosis, COVID-19 hospitalisations, and deaths : analysis of two years of a record linked national cohort study in Scotland ' , Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health , vol. 77 , no. 10 , pp. 641-648 .
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-9466-833X/work/139964711
dc.descriptionFunding: Economics and Social Research Council (ESRC) ES/W000849/1, Medical Research Council (MRC) MC_UU_00022/2, Scottish Government Chief Scientist Office SPHSU17.en
dc.description.abstractBACKGROUND: This study aims to estimate ethnic inequalities in risk for positive SARS-CoV-2 tests, COVID-19 hospitalisations and deaths over time in Scotland. METHODS: We conducted a population-based cohort study where the 2011 Scottish Census was linked to health records. We included all individuals≥16 years living in Scotland on 1 March 2020. The study period was from 1 March 2020 to 17 April 2022. Self-reported ethnic group was taken from the census and Cox proportional hazard models estimated HRs for positive SARS-CoV-2 tests, hospitalisations and deaths, adjusted for age, sex and health board. We also conducted separate analyses for each of the four waves of COVID-19 to assess changes in risk over time. FINDINGS: Of the 4 358 339 individuals analysed, 1 093 234 positive SARS-CoV-2 tests, 37 437 hospitalisations and 14 158 deaths occurred. The risk of COVID-19 hospitalisation or death among ethnic minority groups was often higher for White Gypsy/Traveller (HR 2.21, 95% CI (1.61 to 3.06)) and Pakistani 2.09 (1.90 to 2.29) groups compared with the white Scottish group. The risk of COVID-19 hospitalisation or death following confirmed positive SARS-CoV-2 test was particularly higher for White Gypsy/Traveller 2.55 (1.81-3.58), Pakistani 1.75 (1.59-1.73) and African 1.61 (1.28-2.03) individuals relative to white Scottish individuals. However, the risk of COVID-19-related death following hospitalisation did not differ. The risk of COVID-19 outcomes for ethnic minority groups was higher in the first three waves compared with the fourth wave. INTERPRETATION: Most ethnic minority groups were at increased risk of adverse COVID-19 outcomes in Scotland, especially White Gypsy/Traveller and Pakistani groups. Ethnic inequalities persisted following community infection but not following hospitalisation, suggesting differences in hospital treatment did not substantially contribute to ethnic inequalities.
dc.relation.ispartofJournal of Epidemiology and Community Healthen
dc.subjectEthnic inequalitiesen
dc.subjectHV Social pathology. Social and public welfareen
dc.subjectRA0421 Public health. Hygiene. Preventive Medicineen
dc.subjectSDG 3 - Good Health and Well-beingen
dc.titleEthnic inequalities in positive SARS-CoV-2 tests, infection prognosis, COVID-19 hospitalisations, and deaths : analysis of two years of a record linked national cohort study in Scotlanden
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Sir James Mackenzie Institute for Early Diagnosisen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Population and Behavioural Science Divisionen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Medicineen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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