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dc.contributor.authorEngelmann, Jan M.
dc.contributor.authorVölter, Christoph J.
dc.contributor.authorGoddu, Mariel K.
dc.contributor.authorCall, Josep
dc.contributor.authorRakoczy, Hannes
dc.contributor.authorHermann, Esther
dc.identifier.citationEngelmann , J M , Völter , C J , Goddu , M K , Call , J , Rakoczy , H & Hermann , E 2023 , ' Chimpanzees prepare for alternative possible outcomes ' , Biology Letters , vol. 19 , no. 6 , 20230179 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 286089979
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 6d657b91-0e1d-4155-b4a2-dc90a96dd23c
dc.identifier.otherPubMedCentral: PMC10282584
dc.identifier.otherPubMed: 37340809
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-8597-8336/work/139156730
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85163883980
dc.description.abstractWhen facing uncertainty, humans often build mental models of alternative outcomes. Considering diverging scenarios allows agents to respond adaptively to different actual worlds by developing contingency plans (covering one's bases). In a pre-registered experiment, we tested whether chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) prepare for two mutually exclusive possibilities. Chimpanzees could access two pieces of food, but only if they successfully protected them from a human competitor. In one condition, chimpanzees could be certain about which piece of food the human experimenter would attempt to steal. In a second condition, either one of the food rewards was a potential target of the competitor. We found that chimpanzees were significantly more likely to protect both pieces of food in the second relative to the first condition, raising the possibility that chimpanzees represent and prepare effectively for different possible worlds.
dc.relation.ispartofBiology Lettersen
dc.rightsCopyright © 2023 The Author(s). Published by the Royal Society. This work has been made available online in accordance with the University of St Andrews Open Access policy. This accepted manuscript is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. The final published version of this work is available at
dc.subjectFuture planningen
dc.subjectModal cognitionen
dc.subjectQL Zoologyen
dc.subjectBF Psychologyen
dc.titleChimpanzees prepare for alternative possible outcomesen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Centre for Social Learning & Cognitive Evolutionen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Psychology and Neuroscienceen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Institute of Behavioural and Neural Sciencesen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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