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dc.contributor.authorCarnall, Adam C.
dc.contributor.authorMcLure, Ross J.
dc.contributor.authorDunlop, James S.
dc.contributor.authorMcLeod, Derek J.
dc.contributor.authorWild, Vivienne
dc.contributor.authorCullen, Fergus
dc.contributor.authorMagee, Dan
dc.contributor.authorBegley, Ryan
dc.contributor.authorCimatti, Andrea
dc.contributor.authorDonnan, Callum T.
dc.contributor.authorHamadouche, Massissilia L.
dc.contributor.authorJewell, Sophie M.
dc.contributor.authorWalker, Sam
dc.identifier.citationCarnall , A C , McLure , R J , Dunlop , J S , McLeod , D J , Wild , V , Cullen , F , Magee , D , Begley , R , Cimatti , A , Donnan , C T , Hamadouche , M L , Jewell , S M & Walker , S 2023 , ' A massive quiescent galaxy at redshift 4.658 ' , Nature , vol. 619 , no. 7971 , pp. 716–719 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 286588925
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 1460798e-2724-4b95-a73e-06e9a15da89d
dc.identifier.otherRIS: urn:8B0FE261491519075BC03336F9D726F0
dc.identifier.otherRIS: Carnall2023
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85165132412
dc.descriptionFunding: A. C. Carnall thanks the Leverhulme Trust for their support via a Leverhulme Early Career Fellowship. R. J. McLure, J. S. Dunlop, D. J. McLeod, V. Wild, R. Begley, C. T. Donnan and M. L. Hamadouche acknowledge the support of the Science and Technology Facilities Council. F. Cullen acknowledges support from a UKRI Frontier Research Guarantee Grant (grant reference EP/X021025/1). A. Cimatti acknowledges support from the grant PRIN MIUR 2017 - 20173ML3WW 001.en
dc.description.abstractThe extremely rapid assembly of the earliest galaxies during the first billion years of cosmic history is a major challenge for our understanding of galaxy formation physics (1; 2; 3; 4; 5). The advent of JWST has exacerbated this issue by confirming the existence of galaxies in significant numbers as early as the first few hundred million years (6; 7; 8). Perhaps even more surprisingly, in some galaxies, this initial highly efficient star formation rapidly shuts down, or quenches, giving rise to massive quiescent galaxies as little as 1.5 billion years after the Big Bang (9; 10), however, due to their faintness and red colour, it has proven extremely challenging to learn about these extreme quiescent galaxies, or to confirm whether any exist at earlier times. Here we report the spectroscopic confirmation of a massive quiescent galaxy, GS-9209, at redshift, z = 4.658, just 1.25 billion years after the Big Bang, using JWST NIRSpec. From these data we infer a stellar mass of M∗ = 3.8 ± 0.2 × 1010 M⊙, which formed over a ≃ 200 Myr period before this galaxy quenched its star formation activity at z=6.5+0.2−0.5, when the Universe was ≃ 800 million years old. This galaxy is both a likely descendent of the highest-redshift submillimetre galaxies and quasars, and a likely progenitor for the dense, ancient cores of the most massive local galaxies.
dc.rightsCopyright © The Author(s) 2023. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit
dc.subjectQB Astronomyen
dc.subjectQC Physicsen
dc.titleA massive quiescent galaxy at redshift 4.658en
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Physics and Astronomyen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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