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dc.contributor.authorLei, Yaxiong
dc.contributor.authorWang, Yuheng
dc.contributor.authorCaslin, Tyler
dc.contributor.authorWisowaty, Alexander
dc.contributor.authorZhu, Xu
dc.contributor.authorKhamis, Mohamed
dc.contributor.authorYe, Juan
dc.identifier.citationLei , Y , Wang , Y , Caslin , T , Wisowaty , A , Zhu , X , Khamis , M & Ye , J 2023 , ' DynamicRead : exploring robust gaze interaction methods for reading on handheld mobile devices under dynamic conditions ' , Proceedings of the ACM on Human-Computer Interaction , vol. 7 , no. ETRA , 158 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 286260006
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 9f1ddf19-dbdd-4026-9288-c6027f404cdc
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-0697-7942/work/135388094
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-2838-6836/work/135455079
dc.descriptionLei, Y. and Wang, Y. acknowledge the financial support by the University of St Andrews and China Scholarship Council Joint Scholarshipen
dc.description.abstractEnabling gaze interaction in real-time on handheld mobile devices has attracted significant attention in recent years. An increasing number of research projects have focused on sophisticated appearance-based deep learning models to enhance the precision of gaze estimation on smartphones. This inspires important research questions, including how the gaze can be used in a real-time application, and what type of gaze interaction methods are preferable under dynamic conditions in terms of both user acceptance and delivering reliable performance. To address these questions, we design four types of gaze scrolling techniques: three explicit technique based on Gaze Gesture, Dwell time, and Pursuit; and one implicit technique based on reading speed to support touch-free, page-scrolling on a reading application. We conduct a 20-participant user study under both sitting and walking settings and our results reveal that Gaze Gesture and Dwell time-based interfaces are more robust while walking and Gaze Gesture has achieved consistently good scores on usability while not causing high cognitive workload.
dc.relation.ispartofProceedings of the ACM on Human-Computer Interactionen
dc.rightsCopyright © 2023 Copyright held by the owner/author(s). Publication rights licensed to ACM. This work has been made available online in accordance with publisher policies or with permission. Permission for further reuse of this content should be sought from the publisher or the rights holder. This is the author created accepted manuscript following peer review and may differ slightly from the final published version. The final published version of this work is available at
dc.subjectEye Trackingen
dc.subjectMobile devicesen
dc.subjectGaze-based Interactionen
dc.subjectGaze Gestureen
dc.subjectScrolling Techniquesen
dc.subjectQA75 Electronic computers. Computer scienceen
dc.titleDynamicRead : exploring robust gaze interaction methods for reading on handheld mobile devices under dynamic conditionsen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Computer Scienceen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Statisticsen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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