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dc.contributor.authorBenn, Douglas I.
dc.contributor.authorHewitt, Ian J.
dc.contributor.authorLuckman, Adrian J.
dc.identifier.citationBenn , D I , Hewitt , I J & Luckman , A J 2023 , ' Enthalpy balance theory unifies diverse glacier surge behaviour ' , Annals of Glaciology , vol. FirstView .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 284186869
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 9b1ce45f-b5ea-4629-ab36-9b2947ad352d
dc.identifier.otherRIS: urn:9C6889C8701CA9D0D70B9217C0793084
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-3604-0886/work/133729656
dc.description.abstractIt is commonly asserted that there are two distinct classes of glacier surges: slow, long-duration ‘Svalbard-type’ surges, triggered by a transition from cold- to warm-based conditions (thermal switching), and fast, shorter-duration ‘Alaska-type’ surges triggered by a reorganisation of the basal drainage system (hydraulic switching). This classification, however, reflects neither the diversity of surges in Svalbard and Alaska (and other regions), nor the fundamental dynamic processes underlying all surges. We argue that enthalpy balance theory offers a framework for understanding the spectrum of glacier surging behaviours while emphasising their essential dynamic unity. In this paper, we summarise enthalpy balance theory, illustrate its potential to explain so-called ‘Svalbard-type’ and ‘Alaska-type’ surges using a single set of principles, and show examples of a much wider range of glacier surge behaviour than previously observed. We then identify some future directions for research, including strategies for testing predictions of the theory against field and remote sensing data, and priorities for numerical model development.
dc.relation.ispartofAnnals of Glaciologyen
dc.rightsCopyright © The Author(s), 2023. Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of The International Glaciological Society. This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (, which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution and reproduction, provided the original article is properly cited.en
dc.subjectGlacier modellingen
dc.subjectGlacier surgesen
dc.subjectSubglacial processesen
dc.subjectG Geography (General)en
dc.titleEnthalpy balance theory unifies diverse glacier surge behaviouren
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Environmental Change Research Groupen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Bell-Edwards Geographic Data Instituteen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Geography & Sustainable Developmenten
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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