A full transit of v2 Lupi d and the search for an exomoon in its Hill sphere with CHEOPS
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The planetary system around the naked-eye star v2 Lupi (HD 136352; TOI-2011) is composed of three exoplanets with masses of 4.7, 11.2, and 8.6 Earth masses (M⊕). The TESS and CHEOPS missions revealed that all three planets are transiting and have radii straddling the radius gap separating volatile-rich and volatile-poor super-earths. Only a partial transit of planet d had been covered so we re-observed an inferior conjunction of the long-period 8.6 M⊕ exoplanet v2 Lup d with the CHEOPS space telescope. We confirmed its transiting nature by covering its whole 9.1 h transit for the first time. We refined the planet transit ephemeris to P = 107.1361-0.0022+0.0019 days and Tc = 2459009.7759-0.0096+0.0101 BJDTDB, improving by ~40 times on the previously reported transit timing uncertainty. This refined ephemeris will enable further follow-up of this outstanding long-period transiting planet to search for atmospheric signatures or explore the planet's Hill sphere in search for an exomoon. In fact, the CHEOPS observations also cover the transit of a large fraction of the planet's Hill sphere, which is as large as the Earth's, opening the tantalising possibility of catching transiting exomoons. We conducted a search for exomoon signals in this single-epoch light curve but found no conclusive photometric signature of additional transiting bodies larger than Mars. Yet, only a sustained follow-up of v2 Lup d transits will warrant a comprehensive search for a moon around this outstanding exoplanet.
Ehrenreich , D , Delrez , L , Akinsanmi , B , Wilson , T G , Bonfanti , A , Beck , M , Benz , W , Hoyer , S , Queloz , D , Alibert , Y , Charnoz , S , Collier Cameron , A , Deline , A , Hooton , M , Lendl , M , Olofsson , G , Sousa , S G , Adibekyan , V , Alonso , R , Anglada , G , Barrado , D , Barros , S C C , Baumjohann , W , Beck , T , Bekkelien , A , Bergomi , M , Billot , N , Bonfils , X , Brandeker , A , Broeg , C , Bárczy , T , Berta-Thompson , Z K , Cabrera , J , Corral Van Damme , C , Csizmadia , S , Davies , M B , Deleuil , M , Demangeon , O , Demory , B-O , Doty , J P , Erikson , A , Fausnaugh , M M , Florén , H-G , Fortier , A , Fossati , L , Fridlund , M , Futyan , D , Gandolfi , D , Gillon , M , Guterman , P , Güdel , M , Heng , K , Isaak , K G , Jäckel , A , Jenkins , J M , Kiss , L L , Laskar , J , Latham , D W , Lecavelier Des Etangs , A , Levine , A M , Lovis , C , Magrin , D , Maxted , P F L , Morgan , E H , Nascimbeni , V , Osborn , H P , Ottensamer , R , Pagano , I , Pallé , E , Peter , G , Piotto , G , Pollacco , D , Ragazzoni , R , Rando , N , Rauer , H , Ribas , I , Ricker , G R , Salmon , S , Santos , N C , Scandariato , G , Simon , A E , Smith , A M S , Steinberger , M , Steller , M , Szabó , G M , Ségransan , D , Shporer , A , Thomas , N , Tschentscher , M , Udry , S , Vanderspek , R , Van Grootel , V & Walton , N A 2023 , ' A full transit of v 2 Lupi d and the search for an exomoon in its Hill sphere with CHEOPS ' , Astronomy and Astrophysics , vol. 671 , A154 . https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/202244790
Astronomy and Astrophysics
Copyright © The Authors 2023. Open Access article, published by EDP Sciences, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
DescriptionFunding: The Swiss participation in CHEOPS has been supported by the Swiss Space Office in the framework of PRODEX and the Activités Nationales Complémentaires and the Universities of Bern and Geneva as well as the NCCR PlanetS and the Swiss National Science Foundation. The MOC activities have been supported by ESA contract 4000124370. This work has been carried out within the framework of the National Centre of Competence in Research PlanetS supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation under grants 51NF40_182901 and 51NF40_205606. D.G., X.B., S.C., M.F. and J.L. acknowledge their roles as ESA-appointed CHEOPS science team members. This project has received funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (project FOUR ACES; grant agreement No 724427). It has also been carried out in the frame of the National Centre for Competence in Research PlanetS supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF). DE acknowledges financial support from the Swiss National Science Foundation for project 200021_200726. The Belgian participation to CHEOPS has been supported by the Belgian Federal Science Policy Office (BELSPO) in the framework of the PRODEX Program, and by the University of Liège through an ARC grant for Concerted Research Actions financed by the Wallonia-Brussels Federation; L.D. is an F.R.S.-FNRS Postdoctoral Researcher. A.C.C. and T.W. acknowledge support from STFC consolidated grant numbers ST/R000824/1 and ST/V000861/1, and UKSA grant number ST/R003203/1. S.H. gratefully acknowledges CNES funding through the grant 837319. This work was also partially supported by a grant from the Simons Foundation (PI Queloz, grant number 327127). Y.A. and M.J.H. acknowledge the support of the Swiss National Fund under grant 200020_172746. M.L. and B.A. acknowledges support of the Swiss National Science Foundation under grant number PCEFP2_194576. S.G.S. acknowledges support from FCT through FCT contract nr. CEECIND/00826/2018 and POPH/FSE (EC). We acknowledge support from the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation and the European Regional Development Fund through grants ESP2016-80435-C2-1-R, ESP2016-80435-C2-2-R, PGC2018-098153-B-C33, PGC2018-098153-B-C31, ESP2017-87676-C5-1-R, MDM-2017-0737 Unidad de Excelencia Maria de Maeztu-Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), as well as the support of the Generalitat de Catalunya/CERCA programme. The MOC activities have been supported by the ESA contract No. 4000124370. S.C.C.B. acknowledges support from FCT through FCT contracts nr. IF/01312/2014/CP1215/CT0004. A.Br. was supported by the SNSA. This project was supported by the CNES. This work was supported by FCT - Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia through national funds and by FEDER through COMPETE2020 - Programa Operacional Competitividade e Internacionalizaç ao by these grants: UID/FIS/04434/2019, UIDB/04434/2020, UIDP/04434/2020, PTDC/FIS-AST/32113/2017 & POCI-01-0145-FEDER-032113, PTDC/FIS-AST/28953/2017 & POCI-01-0145-FEDER-028953, PTDC/FIS-AST/28987/2017 & POCI-01-0145-FEDER-028987, O.D.S.D. is supported in the form of work contract (DL 57/2016/CP1364/CT0004) funded by national funds through FCT. B.-O.D. acknowledges support from the Swiss National Science Foundation (PP00P2-190080). M.F. and C.M.P. gratefully acknowledge the support of the Swedish National Space Agency (DNR 65/19, 174/18). D.G. gratefully acknowledges financial support from the CRT foundation under Grant No. 2018.2323 “Gaseousor rocky? Unveiling the nature of small worlds”. M.G. is an F.R.S.-FNRS Senior Research Associate. This work was granted access to the HPC resources of MesoPSL financed by the Région Île-de-France and the project Equip@Meso (reference ANR-10-EQPX-29-01) of the programme Investissements d’Avenir supervised by the Agence Nationale pour la Recherche. P.M. acknowledges support from STFC research grant number ST/M001040/1. L.Bo., G.Br., V.Na., I.Pa., G.Pi., R.Ra., G.Sc., V.Si., and T.Zi. acknowledge support from CHEOPS ASI-INAF agreement n. 2019-29-HH.0. K.G.I. is the ESA CHEOPS Project Scientist and is responsible for the ESA CHEOPS Guest Observers Programme. She does not participate in, or contribute to, the definition of the Guaranteed Time Programme of the CHEOPS mission through which observations described in this paper have been taken, nor to any aspect of target selection for the programme. I.R.I. acknowledges support from the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation and the European Regional Development Fund through grant PGC2018-098153-B-C33, as well as the support of the Generalitat de Catalunya/CERCA programme. Gy.M.Sz. acknowledges the support of the Hungarian National Research, Development and Innovation Office (NKFIH) grant K-125015, a a PRODEX Experiment Agreement No. 4000137122, the Lendület LP2018-7/2021 grant of the Hungarian Academy of Science and the support of the city of Szombathely. V.V.G. is an F.R.S-FNRS Research Associate. N.A.W. acknowledges UKSA grant ST/R004838/1. This paper includes data collected by the TESS mission, which are publicly available from the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST). Funding for the TESS mission is provided by the NASA’s Science Mission Directorate. We acknowledge the use of public TESS data from pipelines at the TESS Science Office and at the TESS Science Processing Operations Center. Resources supporting this work were provided by the NASA High-End Computing (HEC) Program through the NASA Advanced Supercomputing (NAS) Division at Ames Research Center for the production of the SPOC data products.
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