Glancing through the debris disk : photometric analysis of de Boo with CHEOPS
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Aims DE Boo is a unique system, with an edge-on view through the debris disk around the star. The disk, which is analogous to the Kuiper belt in the Solar System, was reported to extend from 74 to 84 AU from the central star. The high photometric precision of the Characterising Exoplanet Satellite (CHEOPS) provided an exceptional opportunity to observe small variations in the light curve due to transiting material in the disk. This is a unique chance to investigate processes in the debris disk. Methods Photometric observations of DE Boo of a total of four days were carried out with CHEOPS. Photometric variations due to spots on the stellar surface were subtracted from the light curves by applying a two-spot model and a fourth-order polynomial. The photometric observations were accompanied by spectroscopic measurements with the 1m RCC telescope at Piszkésteto and with the SOPHIE spectrograph in order to refine the astrophysical parameters of DE Boo. Results We present a detailed analysis of the photometric observation of DE Boo. We report the presence of nonperiodic transient features in the residual light curves with a transit duration of 0.3-0.8 days. We calculated the maximum distance of the material responsible for these variations to be 2.47 AU from the central star, much closer than most of the mass of the debris disk. Furthermore, we report the first observation of flaring events in this system. Conclusions We interpreted the transient features as the result of scattering in an inner debris disk around DE Boo. The processes responsible for these variations were investigated in the context of interactions between planetesimals in the system.
Boldog , Á , Szabó , G M , Kriskovics , L , Brandeker , A , Kiefer , F , Bekkelien , A , Guterman , P , Olofsson , G , Simon , A E , Gandolfi , D , Serrano , L M , Wilson , T G , Sousa , S G , Lecavelier Des Etangs , A , Alibert , Y , Alonso , R , Anglada , G , Bandy , T , Bárczy , T , Barrado , D , Barros , S C C , Baumjohann , W , Beck , M , Beck , T , Benz , W , Billot , N , Bonfils , X , Broeg , C , Buder , M , Cabrera , J , Charnoz , S , Collier Cameron , A , Corral Van Damme , C , Csizmadia , S , Davies , M B , Deline , A , Deleuil , M , Delrez , L , Demangeon , O D S , Demory , B-O , Ehrenreich , D , Erikson , A , Farinato , J , Fortier , A , Fossati , L , Fridlund , M , Gillon , M , Güdel , M , Heng , K , Hoyer , S , Isaak , K G , Kiss , L L , Laskar , J , Lendl , M , Lovis , C , Magrin , D , Maxted , P F L , Mecina , M , Nascimbeni , V , Ottensamer , R , Pagano , I , Pallé , E , Peter , G , Piotto , G , Pollacco , D , Queloz , D , Ragazzoni , R , Rando , N , Rauer , H , Ribas , I , Santos , N C , Scandariato , G , Ségransan , D , Smith , A M S , Steller , M , Thomas , N , Udry , S , Van Grootel , V & Walton , N A 2023 , ' Glancing through the debris disk : photometric analysis of de Boo with CHEOPS ' , Astronomy and Astrophysics , vol. 671 , A127 . https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/202245101
Astronomy and Astrophysics
Copyright © The Authors 2023. Open Access article, published by EDP Sciences, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
DescriptionFunding: We acknowledge the support of the PRODEX Experiment Agreement No. 4000137122 between the ELTE Eötvös Loránd University and the European Space Agency (ESA-D/SCI-LE-2021-0025). Gy.MSz. acknowledges the support of the Hungarian National Research, Development and Innovation Office (NKFIH) grant K-125015, a a PRODEX Experiment Agreement No. 4000137122, the Lendület LP2018-7/2021 grant of the Hungarian Academy of Science and the support of the city of Szombathely. L.K. is supported by the Hungarian National Research, Development and Innovation Office grants PD-134784 and K-131508. L.K. is a Bolyai János Research Fellow. ABr was supported by the SNSA. F.K. acknowledges funding from the Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales, from the French National Research Agency (ANR) under contract number ANR-18-CE31-0019 (SPlaSH), and from the Université Paris Sciences et Lettres under the DIM-ACAV program Origines et conditions d’apparition de la vie. D.G. gratefully acknowledges financial support from the CRT foundation under Grant No. 2018.2323 “Gaseous or rocky? Unveiling the nature of small worlds”. L.M.S. gratefully acknowledges financial support from the CRT foundation under Grant No. 2018.2323 ‘Gaseous or rocky? Unveiling the nature of small worlds’. A.C.C. and T.W. acknowledge support from STFC consolidated grant numbers ST/R000824/1 and ST/V000861/1, and UKSA grant number ST/R003203/1. S.G.S. acknowledge support from FCT through FCT contract nr. CEECIND/00826/2018 and POPH/FSE (EC). Y.A. and M.J.H. acknowledge the support of the Swiss National Fund under grant 200020_172746. We acknowledge support from the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation and the European Regional Development Fund through grants ESP2016-80435-C2-1-R, ESP2016-80435-C2-2-R, PGC2018-098153-B-C33, PGC2018-098153-B-C31, ESP2017-87676-C5-1-R, MDM-2017-0737 Unidad de Excelencia Maria de Maeztu-Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), as well as the support of the Generalitat de Catalunya/CERCA programme. The MOC activities have been supported by the ESA contract no. 4000124370. S.C.C.B. acknowledges support from FCT through FCT contracts no. IF/01312/2014/CP1215/CT0004. X.B., S.C., D.G., M.F. and J.L. acknowledge their role as ESA-appointed CHEOPS science team members. A.C.C. acknowledges support from STFC consolidated grant numbers ST/R000824/1 and ST/V000861/1, and UKSA grant number ST/R003203/1. This project was supported by the CNES. The Belgian participation to CHEOPS has been supported by the Belgian Federal Science Policy Office (BELSPO) in the framework of the PRODEX Program, and by the University of Liège through an ARC grant for Concerted Research Actions financed by the Wallonia-Brussels Federation. L.D. is an F.R.S.-FNRS Postdoctoral Researcher. This work was supported by FCT – Fundação para a Ciencia e a Tecnología through national funds and by FEDER through COMPETE2020 - Programa Operacional Competitividade e Internacionalizacão by these grants: UID/FIS/04434/2019, UIDB/04434/2020, UIDP/04434/2020, PTDC/FIS-AST/32113/2017 & POCI-01-0145-FEDER-032113, PTDC/FIS-AST/28953/2017 & POCI-01-0145-FEDER-028953, PTDC/FIS-AST/28987/2017 & POCI-01-0145-FEDER-028987, O.D.S.D. is supported in the form of work contract (DL 57/2016/CP1364/CT0004) funded by national funds through FCT. B.-O.D. acknowledges support from the Swiss National Science Foundation (PP00P2-190080). This project has received funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (project FOUR ACES. grant agreement No 724427). It has also been carried out in the frame of the National Centre for Competence in Research PlanetS supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF). D.E. and A.D. acknowledge financial support from the Swiss National Science Foundation for project 200021_200726. M.F. and C.M.P. gratefully acknowledge the support of the Swedish National Space Agency (DNR 65/19, 174/18). M.G. is an F.R.S.-FNRS Senior Research Associate. SH gratefully acknowledges CNES funding through the grant 837319. KGI is the ESA CHEOPS Project Scientist and is responsible for the ESA CHEOPS Guest Observers Programme. She does not participate in, or contribute to, the definition of the Guaranteed Time Programme of the CHEOPS mission through which observations described in this paper have been taken, nor to any aspect of target selection for the programme. This work was granted access to the HPC resources of MesoPSL financed by the Region Ile de France and the project Equip@Meso (reference ANR-10-EQPX-29-01) of the programme Investissements d'Avenir supervised by the Agence Nationale pour la Recherche. M.L. acknowledges support of the Swiss National Science Foundation under grant number PCEFP2_194576. P.M. acknowledges support from STFC research grant number ST/M001040/1. L.Bo., G.Br., V.Na., I.Pa., G.Pi., R.Ra., G.Sc., V.Si., and T.Zi. acknowledge support from CHEOPS ASI-INAF agreement n. 2019-29-HH.0. This work was also partially supported by a grant from the Simons Foundation (PI Queloz, grant number 327127). I.R.I. acknowledges support from the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation and the European Regional Development Fund through grant PGC2018-098153-B-C33, as well as the support of the Generalitat de Catalunya/CERCA programme. V.V.G. is an F.R.S-FNRS Research Associate. NAW acknowledges UKSA grant ST/R004838/1.
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