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dc.contributor.authorDumbrell, Josh
dc.contributor.authorDaneshvar, Hadi
dc.contributor.authorOteo, Alberto
dc.contributor.authorBaldacchino, Alexander
dc.contributor.authorMatheson, Catriona
dc.identifier.citationDumbrell , J , Daneshvar , H , Oteo , A , Baldacchino , A & Matheson , C 2023 , ' The acceptability of overdose alert and response technologies : introducing the TPOM-ODART framework ' , Harm Reduction Journal , vol. 20 , 40 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 283924079
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: ff3b1d9c-6341-457a-a72a-4faf0cba5729
dc.identifier.otherJisc: 981699
dc.identifier.otherpublisher-id: s12954-023-00763-4
dc.identifier.othermanuscript: 763
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-5388-7376/work/132214012
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-4239-9529/work/132214216
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85151044888
dc.descriptionFunding: This study was funded by Scottish Government Technology Enabled Care Directorate.en
dc.description.abstractBackground Opioids were implicated in approximately 88,000 fatal overdoses (OD) globally. However, in principle all opioid OD are reversible with the timely administration of naloxone hydrochloride. Despite the widespread availability of naloxone among people who use opioids (PWUO), many who suffer fatal OD use alone, without others present to administer the reversal agent. Recognising this key aspect of the challenge calls for innovations, a number of technological approaches have emerged which aim to connect OD victims with naloxone. However, the acceptability of OD response technologies to PWUO is of key concern. Methods Drawing on the Technology People Organisations Macroenvironment (TPOM) framework, this study sought to integrate acceptability-related findings in this space with primary research data from PWUO, affected family members and service providers to understand the factors involved in harm reduction technology acceptability. A qualitative study using a focus group methodology was conducted. The participant groups were people with lived experience of problem opioid use, affected family members and service providers. Data analysis followed a multi-stage approach to thematic analysis and utilised both inductive and deductive methods. Results Thirty individuals participated in one of six focus groups between November 2021 and September 2022. The analysis generated six major themes, three of which are reported in this article—selected for their close relevance to PWUO and their importance to developers of digital technologies for this group. ‘Trust—in technologies, systems and people’ was a major theme and was closely linked to data security, privacy and confidentiality. ‘Balancing harm reduction, safety and ambivalence’ reflects the delicate balance technological solutions must achieve to be acceptable to PWUO. Lastly, ‘readiness—a double bind’ encapsulates the perception shared across participant groups, that those at the highest risk, may be the least able to engage with interventions. Conclusion Effective digital strategies to prevent fatal OD must be sensitive to the complex relationships between technological, social/human, organisational and wider macroenvironmental factors which can enable or impede intervention delivery. Trust, readiness and performance are central to technology acceptability for PWUO. An augmented TPOM was developed (the TPOM-ODART).
dc.relation.ispartofHarm Reduction Journalen
dc.rightsCopyright © The Author(s) 2023. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.en
dc.subjectPeople who use opioids (PWUO)en
dc.subjectOverdose (OD)en
dc.subjectPublic healthen
dc.subjectHarm reductionen
dc.subjectOverdose alert and response technologies (ODART)en
dc.subjectOverdose digital technologiesen
dc.subjectRA0421 Public health. Hygiene. Preventive Medicineen
dc.subjectRM Therapeutics. Pharmacologyen
dc.subjectSDG 3 - Good Health and Well-beingen
dc.titleThe acceptability of overdose alert and response technologies : introducing the TPOM-ODART frameworken
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.contributor.sponsorScottish Governmenten
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Medicineen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Population and Behavioural Science Divisionen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Centre for Minorities Research (CMR)en
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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