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dc.contributor.authorBeasley, Ryan K.
dc.contributor.authorHom, Andrew
dc.identifier.citationBeasley , R K & Hom , A 2021 , ' Foreign policy in the fourth dimension (FP4D) : locating time in decision-making ' , Foreign Policy Analysis , vol. 17 , no. 2 , oraa028 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 267990790
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 7f14b078-b2d0-4cae-82a1-16c0295719ce
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0001-7928-6504/work/90951992
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000637054900010
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85104852646
dc.description.abstractWhilst International Relations scholarship has taken a ‘temporal turn’, foreign policy decision-making (FPDM) research reveals little explicit theoretical attention to time. Time is an important aspect of several prominent frameworks, yet these either fail to make explicit their conception of time or fail to reflect upon the implications of their temporal assumptions and understandings. We address this lacuna by developing a timing perspective on foreign policy decision-making. We present the central features of this perspective, including the nature of timing agency, temporal motivations, the timing of decision-making processes, and timing as a foreign policy tool. Illustrated with empirical examples, we show how timing plays out in foreign policy decision-making and helps to shed new light on our understanding of crises and ways decision-makers may grapple with them. We conclude by considering the theoretical and empirical benefits and challenges of bridging FPDM with theoretical approaches to time.
dc.relation.ispartofForeign Policy Analysisen
dc.rightsCopyright © The Author(s) (2021). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Studies Association. This work has been made available online in accordance with publisher policies or with permission. Permission for further reuse of this content should be sought from the publisher or the rights holder. This is the author created accepted manuscript following peer review and may differ slightly from the final published version. The final published version of this work is available at
dc.subjectForeign policyen
dc.subjectJZ International relationsen
dc.titleForeign policy in the fourth dimension (FP4D) : locating time in decision-makingen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Centre for Global Law and Governanceen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of International Relationsen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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