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dc.contributor.authorBoyle, Michael
dc.contributor.authorLang, Anthony
dc.identifier.citationBoyle , M & Lang , A 2021 , ' Remaking the world in America's image : surprise, strategic culture, and the American ways of intervention ' , Foreign Policy Analysis , vol. 17 , no. 2 , oraa020 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 257009257
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: bbc8a638-1f0b-4d92-a4bf-a5dc220b0958
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85101038758
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-9159-4451/work/91341089
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000637054900002
dc.description.abstractWhy does the United States seek to export its own political and economic system as part of an intervention? We argue that the U.S. has an ideologically-inflected strategic culture which has yielded two ‘ways’ of intervention over time. The limited model is cost conscious and cedes control over the future of the state to local actors provided that they guarantee open markets and good government. The vindicationist model involves the U.S. paying costs to remake another society in its own image. We argue that the vindicationist way of intervention is activated at moments of strategic surprise, which cause policymakers to react by gambling on large interventions to remake another society. To empirically demonstrate the validity of this explanation, we examine the record of America of limited and vindicationist major interventions from 1946-2005 and present two contrasting case studies of Cold War interventions in Lebanon and the Dominican Republic.
dc.relation.ispartofForeign Policy Analysisen
dc.rights© The Author(s) (2021). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Studies Association. This work has been made available online in accordance with publisher policies or with permission. Permission for further reuse of this content should be sought from the publisher or the rights holder. This is the author created accepted manuscript following peer review and may differ slightly from the final published version. The final published version of this work is available at
dc.subjectStrategic cultureen
dc.subjectUS foreign policyen
dc.subjectJZ International relationsen
dc.titleRemaking the world in America's image : surprise, strategic culture, and the American ways of interventionen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of International Relationsen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Institute of Legal and Constitutional Researchen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Centre for Global Law and Governanceen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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