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dc.contributor.authorRexstad, Eric
dc.contributor.authorBuckland, Stephen Terrence
dc.contributor.authorMarshall, Laura Helen
dc.contributor.authorBorchers, David
dc.identifier.citationRexstad , E , Buckland , S T , Marshall , L H & Borchers , D 2023 , ' Pooling robustness in distance sampling : avoiding bias when there is unmodelled heterogeneity ' , Ecology and Evolution , vol. 13 , no. 1 , e9684 .
dc.identifier.otherRIS: urn:C7895DAEA42D409FE0BBA623D2897BD8
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-9939-709X/work/126031608
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-4323-8161/work/126031862
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-3944-0754/work/126031959
dc.description.abstractThe pooling robustness property of distance sampling results in unbiased abundance estimation even when sources of variation in detection probability are not modeled. However, this property cannot be relied upon to produce unbiased subpopulation abundance estimates when using a single pooled detection function that ignores subpopulations. We investigate by simulation the effect of differences in subpopulation detectability upon bias in subpopulation abundance estimates. We contrast subpopulation abundance estimates using a pooled detection function with estimates derived using a detection function model employing a subpopulation covariate. Using point transect survey data from a multispecies songbird study, species-specific abundance estimates are compared using pooled detection functions with and without a small number of adjustment terms, and a detection function with species as a covariate. With simulation, we demonstrate the bias of subpopulation abundance estimates when a pooled detection function is employed. The magnitude of the bias is positively related to the magnitude of disparity between the subpopulation detection functions. However, the abundance estimate for the entire population remains unbiased except when there is extreme heterogeneity in detection functions. Inclusion of a detection function model with a subpopulation covariate essentially removes the bias of the subpopulation abundance estimates. The analysis of the songbird point count surveys shows some bias in species-specific abundance estimates when a pooled detection function is used. Pooling robustness is a unique property of distance sampling, producing unbiased abundance estimates at the level of the study area even in the presence of large differences in detectability between subpopulations. In situations where subpopulation abundance estimates are required for data-poor subpopulations and where the subpopulations can be identified, we recommend the use of subpopulation as a covariate to reduce bias induced in subpopulation abundance estimates.
dc.relation.ispartofEcology and Evolutionen
dc.subjectAbundance estimationen
dc.subjectDistance samplingen
dc.subjectPooling robustnessen
dc.subjectQA Mathematicsen
dc.subjectQH301 Biologyen
dc.titlePooling robustness in distance sampling : avoiding bias when there is unmodelled heterogeneityen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Mathematics and Statisticsen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Applied Mathematicsen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Centre for Research into Ecological & Environmental Modellingen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Institute of Behavioural and Neural Sciencesen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Statisticsen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Scottish Oceans Instituteen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Marine Alliance for Science & Technology Scotlanden
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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