The ionic and ground states of gamma-pyrone. The photoionization spectrum studied by synchrotron radiation, and interpreted by configuration interaction and density functional calculations
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A synchrotron-based photoionization spectrum up to 27 eV represents a considerable improvement in resolution over early He(I) and He(II) spectra. Symmetry-adapted coupled cluster calculations of the ionic state sequence give the sequence of state vertical ionization energies (VIE) as 12B2 < 12B1 < 12A2 < 22B1 < 12A1. Generally, these symmetry-adapted cluster configuration interactions VIE match reasonably well with the experimental spectrum over this wide energy range. Density functional calculations of the corresponding adiabatic terms (AIE) were also performed. Higher energy ionic states were determined by complete active space self-consistent field methods; these include all π-ionizations and some σ-ionic states. These were analyzed by Franck–Condon (FC) procedures and compared with an experiment. The spectral onset is complex, where two states, later shown to be the 12B2 and 12B1 states, are strongly overlapping. The superposition of the FC vibrational structure in the 12B2 and 12B1 states accounts for most of the peaks arising at the onset of the photoelectron spectra. However, the small separation between these two ionic states makes vibronic interaction fairly inevitable. In the absence of Herzberg–Teller analyses for ionic states, we have sought and determined a transition state between the 12B2 and 12B1 states, showing that vibronic coupling does occur. The lack of degradation in the vibrational envelope of the higher of the two states contrasts with our previous work on the halogenobenzenes, where overlapping state envelopes led to considerable widening of the line width at half-height of the higher energy states.
Palmer , M H , Coreno , M , de Simone , M , Grazioli , C , Jones , N C , Hoffmann , S V , Aitken , R A & Sonecha , D K 2023 , ' The ionic and ground states of gamma-pyrone. The photoionization spectrum studied by synchrotron radiation, and interpreted by configuration interaction and density functional calculations ' , The Journal of Chemical Physics , vol. 158 , no. 1 , 014304 . https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0128764
The Journal of Chemical Physics
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