The C-F bond as a conformational probe in agonist receptor interactions.
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Chapter 1 gives an introduction on the physical and electronic properties of fluorine and the C-F bond. The application of fluorine in organic chemistry, which is mainly attributed to the electronic properties of fluorine is described. The role of fluorine in neuropsychiatric drug development and for influencing the conformational study of bioactive amines is also illustrated. Chapter 2 of the thesis describes the synthesis of the two fluorinated stereoisomers (2R, 3S) and (2S, 3S) 3-fluoro N-methyl–D-aspartate (NMDA). These were prepared as analogues to study the binding conformation of NMDA on the glutameric NMDA receptor. The (2S, 3S)-3-fluoro NMDA D-72 was successfully prepared from diethyl D-tartrate. The (2S,3R)- stereoisomer was prepared by separation of diastereoisomers generated by reaction of a meso- epoxide with an enantiomerically pure amine, followed by fluorination. Both the (2S,3R)- and (2R,3S)- enantiomers were prepared separately, however assignment of the absolute configuration to each enantiomer could not be unambiguously proven. The fluorinated 3F-NMDA stereoisomers were assessed by dose response analysis and TEVC analysis in the rat glutamate receptor. The biological results show that the (2S, 3S)-3F NMDA D-72 is a good agonist, whereas (2R, 3S)- and (2S, 3R)-3-fluoro NMDA are inactive stereoisomers. The result of this study indicates that (2S, 3S)-3F NMDA D-72 is the only relevant agonist that can access a conformation for binding to NMDA receptor. Chapter 3 describes the preparation of fluorinated analogues of the calcium receptor agonist Cinacalcet. The (2R,1’R)-123 and (2S,1’R)-124 fluoro Cinacalcet diastereoisomers were prepared from 3’-(trifluoromethyl)cinnamic acid and 3’’-SF₅-137 Cinacalcet was synthesized from pentafluorosulfanyl benzyl alcohol. The biological assessment in the calcium receptor (CaR) revealed that both (2R,1’R)-123 and (2S,1’R)-124 fluoro Cinacalcet is slightly lower in potency compared to the non-fluorinated Cinacalcet 117. This suggests that the Cinacalcet 117 adopts an extended conformation when bound to the receptor. The 3’’-SF₅-137 Cinacalcet possesses equipotent activity with Cinacalcet 117.
Thesis, PhD Doctor of Philosophy
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