Titanium dioxide nanomaterials as negative electrodes for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries
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Titanium dioxide, TiO₂, materials have received much attention in recent years due to their potential use as intercalation negative electrodes for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. The aim of this doctoral work was to synthesise and characterise new titanium dioxide nanomaterials and to investigate their electrochemical behaviour. Three morphologies of TiO₂(B) phase: micro-sized (bulk), nanowires and nanotubes, were synthesised. All three exhibit properties which make them excellent hosts for lithium intercalation. The nanotubes show the best capability of accommodating lithium in the structure, being able to host over one molar equivalent of lithium at low current rates (5 mA g⁻¹). The lithium insertion mechanism in the TiO₂(B) was studied using powder neutron diffraction. In addition, the nature of the irreversible capacity of the nanotubes was studied and ways of reducing it proposed. Nanotubes of another titanium dioxide polymorph, anatase, were synthesised and characterised. Their electrochemical performance was compared with that of commercially available counterparts with different morphologies and particle sizes. The interrelation between particle size/morphology and electrochemical properties has been established. The insertion of lithium which leads to phase variations was studied using in situ Raman microscopy and neutron powder diffraction. It has been demonstrated that doping of the TiO₂(B) nanotubes with vanadium improves their electronic conductivity which is essential for practical applications. Remarkably good electrochemical performance is exhibited by the 6% V-doped TiO₂(B) nanotubes.
Thesis, PhD Doctor of Philosophy
Embargo Date: Print and electronic copy restricted until 8th April 2017
Embargo Reason: Thesis restricted in accordance with University regulations
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