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dc.contributor.authorConti, Aldo
dc.contributor.authorBaldacchino, Alexander Mario
dc.identifier.citationConti , A & Baldacchino , A M 2022 , ' Chronic tobacco smoking, impaired reward-based decision-making, and role of insular cortex : a comparison between early-onset smokers and late-onset smokers ' , Frontiers in Psychiatry , vol. 13 , 939707 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 281211290
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 31040579-7286-4c0e-b244-017841459381
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-5388-7376/work/118799853
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85138072946
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000854963700001
dc.descriptionFunding: This study was supported by the University of St. Andrews Endowment fund.en
dc.description.abstractIntroduction: The literature suggests that tobacco smoking may have a neurotoxic effect on the developing adolescent brain. Particularly, it may impair the decision-making process of early-onset smokers (<16 years), by rendering them more prone to impulsive and risky choices toward rewards, and therefore more prone to smoking relapses, in comparison to late-onset smokers (≥16 years). However, no study has ever investigated reward-based decision-making and structural brain differences between early-onset smokers and late-onset smokers. Methods: Computerized measures of reward-based decision-making [Cambridge Gambling Task (CGT); 5-trials adjusting delay discounting task (ADT-5)] were administered to 11 early-onset smokers (mean age at regular smoking initiation = 13.2 years), 17 late-onset smokers (mean age at regular smoking initiation = 18.0 years), and 24 non-smoker controls. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was utilized to investigate the gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volume differences in fronto-cortical and striatal brain regions between early-onset smokers, late-onset smokers, and non-smokers. Results: Early-onset smokers displayed a riskier decision-making behavior in comparison to non-smokers as assessed by the CGT (p < 0.01, Cohen’s f = 0.48). However, no significant differences (p > 0.05) in reward-based decision-making were detected between early-onset smokers and late-onset smokers. VBM results revealed early-onset smokers to present lower GM volume in the bilateral anterior insular cortex (AI) in comparison to late-onset smokers and lower WM volume in the right AI in comparison to late-onset smokers. Conclusion: Impairments in reward-based decision-making may not be affected by tobacco smoking initiation during early adolescence. Instead, lower GM and WM volume in the AI of early-onset smokers may underline a vulnerability to develop compulsive tobacco seeking and smoking behavior during adulthood.
dc.relation.ispartofFrontiers in Psychiatryen
dc.rightsCopyright © 2022 Conti and Baldacchino. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.en
dc.subjectInsular cortexen
dc.subjectAdolescent smokersen
dc.subjectCognitive impulsivityen
dc.subjectVoxel based morphometryen
dc.subjectChronic tobacco smokingen
dc.subjectReward-based decision-makingen
dc.subjectRA Public aspects of medicineen
dc.subjectRC0321 Neuroscience. Biological psychiatry. Neuropsychiatryen
dc.titleChronic tobacco smoking, impaired reward-based decision-making, and role of insular cortex : a comparison between early-onset smokers and late-onset smokersen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Medicineen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Centre for Minorities Research (CMR)en
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Population and Behavioural Science Divisionen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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