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dc.contributor.authorPustelnikovaite, Toma
dc.contributor.authorChillas, Shiona
dc.identifier.citationPustelnikovaite , T & Chillas , S 2022 , ' Modes of incorporation : the inclusion of migrant academics in the UK ' , Work, Employment and Society , vol. OnlineFirst .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 279528690
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 78716cba-4be9-4c6e-bc8b-258867cc3605
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-1184-0553/work/118800121
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85137245218
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000847547700001
dc.descriptionThis work was supported by the 600th Anniversary PhD Scholarship provided by the School of Management, University of St Andrews.en
dc.description.abstractThis article examines the internationalisation of professions in a qualitative study of migrant academics, drawing on social closure theory to understand how professions respond to the growing numbers of migrants. While studies of closure in professions tend to focus on forms of exclusion based on ascribed characteristics, this article is concerned with how professions include migrants in their ranks. Analysis of interviews with 62 foreign-born academics working in the UK reveals differences in degree of closure towards migrant academics, indicating that inclusion and exclusion are not binary opposites. The article captures degrees of closure in a novel concept – ‘modes of incorporation’ – identifying three inclusion patterns: integration, subordination and marginalisation. ‘Modes of incorporation’ extends closure theory by showing how inclusion is controlled and designed to preserve the status quo, thereby restricting internationalisation.
dc.relation.ispartofWork, Employment and Societyen
dc.rightsCopyright © The Author(s) 2022. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License ( which permits any use, reproduction and distribution of the work without further permission provided the original work is attributed as specified on the SAGE and Open Access pages (
dc.subjectSocial closureen
dc.subjectMigrant academicsen
dc.subjectLF Individual institutions (Europe)en
dc.subjectJV Colonies and colonization. Emigration and immigration. International migrationen
dc.subjectBusiness, Management and Accounting(all)en
dc.titleModes of incorporation : the inclusion of migrant academics in the UKen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Centre for the Study of Philanthropy & Public Gooden
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Centre for Higher Education Researchen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Managementen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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