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dc.contributor.authorYagoub, Suliman H
dc.contributor.authorLim, Megan
dc.contributor.authorTan, Tiffany C Y
dc.contributor.authorChow, Darren J X
dc.contributor.authorDholakia, Kishan
dc.contributor.authorGibson, Brant C
dc.contributor.authorThompson, Jeremy G
dc.contributor.authorDunning, Kylie R
dc.identifier.citationYagoub , S H , Lim , M , Tan , T C Y , Chow , D J X , Dholakia , K , Gibson , B C , Thompson , J G & Dunning , K R 2022 , ' Vitrification within a nanoliter volume : oocyte and embryo cryopreservation within a 3D photopolymerized device ' , Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics , vol. First Online .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 281024877
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 285a03d4-df78-4405-9b80-86a839b9ce66
dc.identifier.otherJisc: 556293
dc.identifier.otherPubMed: 35951146
dc.identifier.otherpii: 10.1007/s10815-022-02589-8
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85135812280
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000839330500001
dc.descriptionOpen Access funding enabled and organized by CAUL and its Member Institutions. KRD is supported by a Mid-Career Fellowship from the Hospital Research Foundation (C-MCF-58–2019). KD acknowledges funding from the UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (grants EP/P030017/1). This study was funded by the Australian Research Council (ARC) Centre of Excellence for Nanoscale BioPhotonics (CE140100003).en
dc.description.abstractPurpose Vitrification permits long-term banking of oocytes and embryos. It is a technically challenging procedure requiring direct handling and movement of cells between potentially cytotoxic cryoprotectant solutions. Variation in adherence to timing, and ability to trace cells during the procedure, affects survival post-warming. We hypothesized that minimizing direct handling will simplify the procedure and improve traceability. To address this, we present a novel photopolymerized device that houses the sample during vitrification. Methods The fabricated device consisted of two components: the Pod and Garage. Single mouse oocytes or embryos were housed in a Pod, with multiple Pods docked into a Garage. The suitability of the device for cryogenic application was assessed by repeated vitrification and warming cycles. Oocytes or early blastocyst-stage embryos were vitrified either using standard practice or within Pods and a Garage and compared to non-vitrified control groups. Post-warming, we assessed survival rate, oocyte developmental potential (fertilization and subsequent development) and metabolism (autofluorescence). Results Vitrification within the device occurred within ~ 3 nL of cryoprotectant: this volume being ~ 1000-fold lower than standard vitrification. Compared to standard practice, vitrification and warming within our device showed no differences in viability, developmental competency, or metabolism for oocytes and embryos. The device housed the sample during processing, which improved traceability and minimized handling. Interestingly, vitrification-warming itself, altered oocyte and embryo metabolism. Conclusion The Pod and Garage system minimized the volume of cryoprotectant at vitrification—by ~ 1000-fold—improved traceability and reduced direct handling of the sample. This is a major step in simplifying the procedure.
dc.relation.ispartofJournal of Assisted Reproduction and Geneticsen
dc.rightsCopyright © The Author(s) 2022. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit
dc.subject3D fabricationen
dc.subjectQH301 Biologyen
dc.subjectQH426 Geneticsen
dc.titleVitrification within a nanoliter volume : oocyte and embryo cryopreservation within a 3D photopolymerized deviceen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Physics and Astronomyen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Sir James Mackenzie Institute for Early Diagnosisen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Centre for Biophotonicsen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Institute of Behavioural and Neural Sciencesen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Biomedical Sciences Research Complexen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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