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dc.contributor.authorAugsburg, Britta
dc.contributor.authorBancalari, Antonella
dc.contributor.authorDurrani, Zara
dc.contributor.authorVaidyanathan, Madhav
dc.contributor.authorWhite, Zach
dc.identifier.citationAugsburg , B , Bancalari , A , Durrani , Z , Vaidyanathan , M & White , Z 2022 , ' When nature calls back : sustaining behavioral change in rural Pakistan ' , Journal of Development Economics , vol. 158 , 102933 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 280414603
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 5123cbf0-e80a-4bf0-96dd-1edc862e71a8
dc.identifier.otherRIS: urn:3A727E96FA4D647BEB8B334D119409B5
dc.identifier.otherRIS: urn:3A727E96FA4D647BEB8B334D119409B5
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85134621171
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000830840700002
dc.descriptionAuthors gratefully acknowledge financial support from FCDO (at that time DfID), Contract: DFID 6507 ‘‘Monitoring, Verification and Evaluation Service Provider for the WASH Results Programme’’ and from the ESRC Centre for the Microeconomic Analysis of Public Policy (ES/T014334/1).en
dc.description.abstractWe implement a randomized controlled trial and a qualitative study to assess whether, and if so how, behavioral change can be sustained. We do so in the context of Pakistan’s national sanitation strategy to combat open defecation, Community-Led Total Sanitation. Our findings demonstrate that continued follow-up activities that build on the original intervention lead to only modest reductions in reversal to unsafe sanitation on average, but gain in importance where initial conditions are unfavorable, i.e. poor public infrastructure and sanitation facilities. Promotion efforts are hence best targeted towards those who face larger difficulties in constructing and maintaining high-quality sanitation. The effects were sustained at least one year after the implementation of activities.
dc.relation.ispartofJournal of Development Economicsen
dc.rightsCopyright © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (
dc.subjectBasic servicesen
dc.subjectTD Environmental technology. Sanitary engineeringen
dc.titleWhen nature calls back : sustaining behavioral change in rural Pakistanen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Economics and Financeen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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