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dc.contributor.authorBooth, Cormac G.
dc.contributor.authorBrannan, Naomi
dc.contributor.authorDunlop, Rebecca
dc.contributor.authorFriedlander, Ari
dc.contributor.authorIsojunno, Saana
dc.contributor.authorMiller, Patrick
dc.contributor.authorQuick, Nicola
dc.contributor.authorSouthall, Brandon
dc.contributor.authorPirotta, Enrico
dc.identifier.citationBooth , C G , Brannan , N , Dunlop , R , Friedlander , A , Isojunno , S , Miller , P , Quick , N , Southall , B & Pirotta , E 2022 , ' A sampling, exposure and receptor framework for identifying factors that modulate behavioural responses to disturbance in cetaceans ' , Journal of Animal Ecology , vol. 91 , no. 10 , pp. 1948-1960 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 280645455
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: fc08a31e-2cda-4a8f-a24b-cc8406edb4c3
dc.identifier.otherRIS: urn:3F8757AA3B21742941758EAC6B247475
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0003-3541-3676/work/117211010
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-2212-2135/work/117211262
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000837886900001
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85136973051
dc.descriptionFunding: This work was funded by the Office of Naval Research under award: N000141912464.en
dc.description.abstract1. The assessment of behavioural disturbance in cetacean species (e.g., resulting from exposure to anthropogenic sources such as military sonar, seismic surveys, or pile driving) is important for effective conservation and management. Disturbance effects can be informed by Behavioural Response Studies (BRSs), involving either controlled exposure experiments (CEEs) where noise exposure conditions are presented deliberately to meet experimental objectives or in opportunistic contexts where ongoing activities are monitored in a strategic manner. In either context, animal-borne sensors or in-situ observations can provide information on individual exposure and disturbance responses. 2. The past 15 years of research have greatly expanded our understanding of behavioural responses to noise, including hundreds of experiments in nearly a dozen cetacean species. Many papers note limited sample sizes, required knowledge of baseline behaviour prior to exposure and the importance of contextual factors modulating behavioural responses, all of which in combination can lead to sampling biases, even for well-designed research programs. 3. It is critical to understand these biases to robustly identify responses. This ensures outcomes of BRSs help inform predictions of how anthropogenic disturbance impacts individuals and populations. Our approach leverages concepts from the animal behaviour literature focused on helping to avoid sampling bias by considering what shapes an animal's response. These factors include social, experience, genetic and natural changes in responsiveness. 4. We developed and applied a modified version of this framework to synthesize current knowledge on cetacean response in the context of effects observed across marine and terrestrial taxa. This new 'Sampling, Exposure, Receptor' framework (SERF) identifies 43 modulating factors, highlights potential biases, and assesses how these vary across selected focal species. 5. In contrast to studies that identified variation in 'Exposure' factors as a key concern, our analysis indicated that factors relating to 'Sampling' (e.g., deploying tags on less evasive individuals, which biases selection of subjects), and "Receptor" (e.g., health status or coping style) have the greatest potential for weakening the desired broad representativeness of BRSs. Our assessment also highlights how potential biases could be addressed with existing datasets or future developments.
dc.relation.ispartofJournal of Animal Ecologyen
dc.rightsCopyright © 2022 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Ecological Society. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.en
dc.subjectMarine mammalsen
dc.subjectBehavioural responsesen
dc.subjectModulating factorsen
dc.subjectUnderwater noiseen
dc.subjectAnthropogenic disturbanceen
dc.subjectGC Oceanographyen
dc.subjectQH301 Biologyen
dc.subjectSDG 14 - Life Below Wateren
dc.titleA sampling, exposure and receptor framework for identifying factors that modulate behavioural responses to disturbance in cetaceansen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Biologyen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Mathematics and Statisticsen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Sea Mammal Research Uniten
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Scottish Oceans Instituteen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Institute of Behavioural and Neural Sciencesen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Centre for Social Learning & Cognitive Evolutionen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Bioacoustics groupen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Marine Alliance for Science & Technology Scotlanden
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Centre for Research into Ecological & Environmental Modellingen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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