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dc.contributor.authorCloutier, Ryan
dc.contributor.authorCharbonneau, David
dc.contributor.authorStassun, Keivan G.
dc.contributor.authorMurgas, Felipe
dc.contributor.authorMortier, Annelies
dc.contributor.authorMassey, Robert
dc.contributor.authorLissauer, Jack J.
dc.contributor.authorLatham, David W.
dc.contributor.authorIrwin, Jonathan
dc.contributor.authorHaywood, Raphaëlle D.
dc.contributor.authorGuerra, Pere
dc.contributor.authorGirardin, Eric
dc.contributor.authorGiacalone, Steven A.
dc.contributor.authorBosch-Cabot, Pau
dc.contributor.authorBieryla, Allyson
dc.contributor.authorWinn, Joshua
dc.contributor.authorWatson, Christopher A.
dc.contributor.authorVanderspek, Roland
dc.contributor.authorUdry, Stéphane
dc.contributor.authorTamura, Motohide
dc.contributor.authorSozzetti, Alessandro
dc.contributor.authorShporer, Avi
dc.contributor.authorSégransan, Damien
dc.contributor.authorSeager, Sara
dc.contributor.authorSavel, Arjun B.
dc.contributor.authorSasselov, Dimitar
dc.contributor.authorRose, Mark
dc.contributor.authorRicker, George
dc.contributor.authorRice, Ken
dc.contributor.authorQuintana, Elisa V.
dc.contributor.authorQuinn, Samuel N.
dc.contributor.authorPiotto, Giampaolo
dc.contributor.authorPhillips, David
dc.contributor.authorPepe, Francesco
dc.contributor.authorPedani, Marco
dc.contributor.authorParviainen, Hannu
dc.contributor.authorPalle, Enric
dc.contributor.authorNarita, Norio
dc.contributor.authorMolinari, Emilio
dc.contributor.authorMicela, Giuseppina
dc.contributor.authorMcDermott, Scott
dc.contributor.authorMayor, Michel
dc.contributor.authorMatson, Rachel A.
dc.contributor.authorMartinez Fiorenzano, Aldo F.
dc.contributor.authorLovis, Christophe
dc.contributor.authorLópez-Morales, Mercedes
dc.contributor.authorKusakabe, Nobuhiko
dc.contributor.authorJensen, Eric L. N.
dc.contributor.authorJenkins, Jon M.
dc.contributor.authorHuang, Chelsea X.
dc.contributor.authorHowell, Steve B.
dc.contributor.authorHarutyunyan, Avet
dc.contributor.authorFűrész, Gábor
dc.contributor.authorFukui, Akihiko
dc.contributor.authorEsquerdo, Gilbert A.
dc.contributor.authorEsparza-Borges, Emma
dc.contributor.authorDumusque, Xavier
dc.contributor.authorDressing, Courtney D.
dc.contributor.authorFabrizio, Luca Di
dc.contributor.authorCollins, Karen A.
dc.contributor.authorCameron, Andrew Collier
dc.contributor.authorChristiansen, Jessie L.
dc.contributor.authorCecconi, Massimo
dc.contributor.authorBuchhave, Lars A.
dc.contributor.authorBoschin, Walter
dc.contributor.authorAndreuzzi, Gloria
dc.identifier.citationCloutier , R , Charbonneau , D , Stassun , K G , Murgas , F , Mortier , A , Massey , R , Lissauer , J J , Latham , D W , Irwin , J , Haywood , R D , Guerra , P , Girardin , E , Giacalone , S A , Bosch-Cabot , P , Bieryla , A , Winn , J , Watson , C A , Vanderspek , R , Udry , S , Tamura , M , Sozzetti , A , Shporer , A , Ségransan , D , Seager , S , Savel , A B , Sasselov , D , Rose , M , Ricker , G , Rice , K , Quintana , E V , Quinn , S N , Piotto , G , Phillips , D , Pepe , F , Pedani , M , Parviainen , H , Palle , E , Narita , N , Molinari , E , Micela , G , McDermott , S , Mayor , M , Matson , R A , Martinez Fiorenzano , A F , Lovis , C , López-Morales , M , Kusakabe , N , Jensen , E L N , Jenkins , J M , Huang , C X , Howell , S B , Harutyunyan , A , Fűrész , G , Fukui , A , Esquerdo , G A , Esparza-Borges , E , Dumusque , X , Dressing , C D , Fabrizio , L D , Collins , K A , Cameron , A C , Christiansen , J L , Cecconi , M , Buchhave , L A , Boschin , W & Andreuzzi , G 2021 , ' TOI-1634 b : an ultra-short-period keystone planet sitting inside the M-dwarf radius valley ' , Astronomical Journal , vol. 162 , no. 2 , 79 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 275761284
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 4234d4df-8d60-4131-96b0-7494c967042b
dc.identifier.otherRIS: urn:9CE046DDF4FED0AD1AE4FA97A8E79366
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85113303932
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-8863-7828/work/99804129
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000679537200001
dc.descriptionFunding The HARPS-N project has been funded by the Prodex Program of the Swiss Space Office (SSO), the Harvard University Origins of Life Initiative (HUOLI), the Scottish Universities Physics Alliance (SUPA), the University of Geneva, the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO), the Italian National Astrophysical Institute (INAF), the University of St Andrews, Queens University Belfast, and the University of Edinburgh.en
dc.description.abstractStudies of close-in planets orbiting M dwarfs have suggested that the M-dwarf radius valley may be well explained by distinct formation timescales between enveloped terrestrials and rocky planets that form at late times in a gas-depleted environment. This scenario is at odds with the picture that close-in rocky planets form with a primordial gaseous envelope that is subsequently stripped away by some thermally driven mass-loss process. These two physical scenarios make unique predictions of the rocky/enveloped transition’s dependence on orbital separation such that studying the compositions of planets within the M-dwarf radius valley may be able to establish the dominant physics. Here, we present the discovery of one such keystone planet: the ultra-short-period planet TOI-1634 b (P = 0.989 days, F = 121F⊕, rp = 1.790 +0.080 -0.081 R⊕) orbiting a nearby M2 dwarf (Ks = 8.7, Rs = 0.450 R⊙, Ms = 0.502 M⊙) and whose size and orbital period sit within the M-dwarf radius valley. We confirm the TESS-discovered planet candidate using extensive ground-based follow-up campaigns, including a set of 32 precise radial velocity measurements from HARPS-N. We measure a planetary mass of 4.91 +0.68-0.70 M⊕, which makes TOI-1634 b inconsistent with an Earth-like composition at and thus requires either an extended gaseous envelope, a large volatile-rich layer, or a rocky composition that is not dominated by iron and silicates to explain its mass and radius. The discovery that the bulk composition of TOI-1634 b is inconsistent with that of Earth supports the gas-depleted formation mechanism to explain the emergence of the radius valley around M dwarfs with Ms ∼< M⊙.
dc.relation.ispartofAstronomical Journalen
dc.rightsCopyright © 2021. The American Astronomical Society. This work has been made available online in accordance with publisher policies or with permission. Permission for further reuse of this content should be sought from the publisher or the rights holder. This is the author created accepted manuscript following peer review and may differ slightly from the final published version. The final published version of this work is available at
dc.subjectPlanetary system formationen
dc.subjectExoplantet strcutureen
dc.subjectRadial velocityen
dc.subjectTransit photometryen
dc.subjectLow mass starsen
dc.subjectQB Astronomyen
dc.subjectQC Physicsen
dc.titleTOI-1634 b : an ultra-short-period keystone planet sitting inside the M-dwarf radius valleyen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.contributor.sponsorScience & Technology Facilities Councilen
dc.contributor.sponsorScience & Technology Facilities Councilen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Physics and Astronomyen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. St Andrews Centre for Exoplanet Scienceen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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