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dc.contributor.authorVidal, Céline M.
dc.contributor.authorFontijn, Karen
dc.contributor.authorLane, Christine S.
dc.contributor.authorAsrat, Asfawossen
dc.contributor.authorBarfod, Dan
dc.contributor.authorTomlinson, Emma L.
dc.contributor.authorPiermattei, Alma
dc.contributor.authorHutchison, William
dc.contributor.authorTadesse, Amdemichael Zafu
dc.contributor.authorYirgu, Gezahegn
dc.contributor.authorDeino, Alan
dc.contributor.authorMoussallam, Yves
dc.contributor.authorMohr, Paul
dc.contributor.authorWilliams, Frances
dc.contributor.authorMather, Tamsin A.
dc.contributor.authorPyle, David M.
dc.contributor.authorOppenheimer, Clive
dc.identifier.citationVidal , C M , Fontijn , K , Lane , C S , Asrat , A , Barfod , D , Tomlinson , E L , Piermattei , A , Hutchison , W , Tadesse , A Z , Yirgu , G , Deino , A , Moussallam , Y , Mohr , P , Williams , F , Mather , T A , Pyle , D M & Oppenheimer , C 2022 , ' Geochronology and glass geochemistry of major pleistocene eruptions in the Main Ethiopian Rift : towards a regional tephrostratigraphy ' , Quaternary Science Reviews , vol. 290 , 107601 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 280603243
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 00faed6d-6e3e-4da4-a0a3-bd2114f4aa1d
dc.identifier.otherRIS: urn:E147AA9209A86500472300E1C8365895
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000836814300003
dc.descriptionThis study was supported by the Leverhulme Trust grant 2016–21 (Nature and impacts of Middle Pleistocene volcanism in the Ethiopian Rift). KF was supported by the UK's Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) grant NE/L013932/1 (RiftVolc: The Past, Present and Future of Rift Volcanism in the Main Ethiopian Rift), a Boise Fund grant from the Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, and acknowledges Fonds de Recherche Scientifique – FNRS MIS grant F.4515.20. Tephra work on the Chew Bahir cores in the Cambridge Tephra Lab by AA, AP and CL was made possible by NERC grant NE/K014560/1. Ar–Ar dating was supported by grants NIGFSC IP-1683-1116 and IP-1680-1116. The iCRAG lab is supported by SFI 13/RC/2092.en
dc.description.abstractThe Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) is renowned as a focus of investigations into human origins. It is also the site of many large volcanic calderas, whose eruptions have spanned the timeframe of speciation, cultural innovation, and dispersal of our species. Yet, despite their significance for dating human fossils and cultural materials, the timing and geochemical signatures of some of the largest eruptions have remained poorly constrained at best. Here, through a programme of field surveys, geochemical analysis and 40Ar/39Ar dating, we report the ages of MER ignimbrites and link them to widespread tephra layers found in sequences of archaeological and paleoenvironmental significance. We date major eruptions of Fentale (76 ± 18 ka), Shala (ca. 145–155 ka), Kone (184 ± 42 ka and ca. 200 ± 12 ka) and Gedemsa (251 ± 47 ka) volcanoes, and correlate a suite of regionally important tephra horizons. Geochemical analysis highlights the predominantly peralkaline rhyolitic melt compositions (7.5–12 wt% Na2O + K2O, 70–76 wt% SiO2) across the central MER and remarkable similarity in incompatible trace element ratios, limiting the correlation of deposits via glass composition alone. However, by integrating stratigraphic and geochronological evidence from proximal deposits, lake sediment cores and distal outcrops at archaeological sites, we have traced ash layers associated with the ca. 177 ka Corbetti, ca. 145–155 ka Shala and ca. 108 ka Bora-Baricha-Tullu-Moye eruptions across southern Ethiopia. In addition to strengthening the tephrochronological framework that supports paleoenvironmental and archaeological work in the region, our findings have wider implications for evaluating the hypothesis of a middle Pleistocene ‘ignimbrite flare-up’ in the MER, and for evaluating the impacts of these great eruptions on landscapes, hydrology, and human ecology.
dc.relation.ispartofQuaternary Science Reviewsen
dc.rightsCopyright © 2022 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (
dc.subjectExplosive volcanismen
dc.subjectEast African Riften
dc.subjectLate quaternaryen
dc.subjectCaldera-forming eruptionen
dc.subjectQE Geologyen
dc.titleGeochronology and glass geochemistry of major pleistocene eruptions in the Main Ethiopian Rift : towards a regional tephrostratigraphyen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Earth & Environmental Sciencesen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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