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dc.contributor.authorMarion, Solène
dc.contributor.authorDemšar, Urška
dc.contributor.authorDavies, Althea
dc.contributor.authorStephens, Philip A.
dc.contributor.authorIrvine, R. Justin
dc.contributor.authorLong, Jed
dc.identifier.citationMarion , S , Demšar , U , Davies , A , Stephens , P A , Irvine , R J & Long , J 2022 , ' Spatial and temporal variations in interspecific interaction : impact of a recreational landscape ' , European Journal of Wildlife Research , vol. 68 , 36 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 279546339
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 375ad86f-358a-4b14-930f-821f74ca0140
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000796999000001
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0001-7791-2807/work/114977197
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0001-9774-7386/work/114977598
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-8982-7471/work/114977644
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85130226035
dc.description.abstractAnthropogenic activities, such as outdoor recreation, have the potential to change complex interactions between wildlife and livestock, with further consequences for the management of both animals, the environment, and disease transmission. We present the interaction amongst wildlife, livestock, and outdoor recreationists as a three-way interaction. Little is known about how recreational activities alter the interaction between herbivores in areas extensively used for recreational purposes. We investigate how hiking activity affects spatio-temporal co-occurrence between domestic sheep (Ovis aries) and red deer (Cervus elaphus). We used camera traps to capture the spatio-temporal distribution of red deer and sheep and used the distance from the hiking path as a proxy of hiking activity. We used generalized linear models to investigate the spatial distribution of sheep and deer. We analysed the activity patterns of sheep and deer and then calculated their coefficients of temporal overlap for each camera trap location. We compared these coefficients in relation to the distance from the hiking path. Finally, we used a generalized linear mixed-model to investigate which factors influence the spatio-temporal succession between deer and sheep. We do not find that sheep and red deer spatially avoid each other. The coefficient of temporal overlap varied with distance from the hiking trail, with stronger temporal co-occurrence at greater distances from the hiking trail. Red deer were more likely to be detected further from the path during the day, which increased the temporal overlap with sheep in these areas. This suggests that hiking pressure influences spatio-temporal interactions between sheep and deer, leading to greater temporal overlap in areas further from the hiking path due to red deer spatial avoidance of hikers. This impact of recreationists on the wildlife and livestock interaction can have consequences for the animals’ welfare, the vegetation they graze, their management, and disease transmission.
dc.relation.ispartofEuropean Journal of Wildlife Researchen
dc.rightsCopyright © The Author(s) 2022. Open Access. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit
dc.subjectOutdoor recreationen
dc.subjectSpatiotemporal overlapen
dc.subjectG Geography (General)en
dc.titleSpatial and temporal variations in interspecific interaction : impact of a recreational landscapeen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.contributor.sponsorThe British Deer Societyen
dc.contributor.sponsorCarnegie Trusten
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. University of St Andrewsen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Environmental Change Research Groupen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Bell-Edwards Geographic Data Instituteen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Geography & Sustainable Developmenten
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Centre for Energy Ethicsen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Geographies of Sustainability, Society, Inequalities and Possibilitiesen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden
dc.identifier.grantnumberRES2017 JIen

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