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dc.contributor.authorWhite, Rehema
dc.contributor.authorMarzano, Mariella
dc.contributor.authorFesenko, Elena
dc.contributor.authorInman, Alan
dc.contributor.authorJones, Glyn
dc.contributor.authorAgstner, Barbara
dc.contributor.authorMumford, Rick
dc.identifier.citationWhite , R , Marzano , M , Fesenko , E , Inman , A , Jones , G , Agstner , B & Mumford , R 2022 , ' Technology development for the early detection of plant pests : a framework for assessing Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) in environmental science ' , Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection , vol. First Online .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 278684700
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: b729883b-2e24-4403-bc3b-4e49718a5fdc
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-9669-0012/work/114977426
dc.descriptionThis work was supported by a grant funded jointly by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council, the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, the Economic and Social Research Council, the Forestry Commission, the Natural Environment Research Council and the Scottish Government, under the Tree Health and Plant Biosecurity Initiative.en
dc.description.abstractInnovation in environmental fields such as plant health is complex because of unbounded challenges and lack of certainty of commercial uptake. In this paper we present a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) framework, specifically to assist with assessment of technologies to support detection of tree pests and pathogens, but also for wider potential adaptation. Biosecurity can be enhanced by improved early detection of pests and pathogens, but development and deployment of new technologies requires robust scrutiny. We critically analyse the concept, practice and applicability of TRLs. Interviews revealed scientist perspectives during the development process of five novel early plant pest and pathogen detection technologies. A retrospective, collective narrative of one technology from concept to commercial deployment was undertaken. We then developed a calculator tool for assessment of biosecurity TRLs. Our findings illustrate the iterative process of technology development, the challenges in final TRLs of acquiring funding to move from proven success to viable product, inefficiencies created through the need for multiple projects for each technology and the imperative to consider the wider socio-ecological technical landscape, including policy context. End user engagement was particularly valuable at beginning and end of the TRL scale. We conclude that the TRL framework comprises a robust approach to assess technologies in that it facilitates progress tracking, evaluation of success likelihood and identification of opportunities for investment. However, its potential will only be realised for environmental management if it is integrated into the socio-ecological technical landscape and wider discussions regarding knowledge co-production and valuing nature.
dc.relation.ispartofJournal of Plant Diseases and Protectionen
dc.rightsCopyright © The Author(s) 2022. Open Access. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit
dc.subjectTree healthen
dc.subjectKnowledge implementationen
dc.subjectPlant heath surveillanceen
dc.subjectSB Plant cultureen
dc.titleTechnology development for the early detection of plant pests : a framework for assessing Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) in environmental scienceen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Geographies of Sustainability, Society, Inequalities and Possibilitiesen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Geography & Sustainable Developmenten
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Centre for Higher Education Researchen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Scottish Oceans Instituteen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. St Andrews Sustainability Instituteen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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