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dc.contributor.authorRahman, Samiur
dc.contributor.authorVattulainen, Aleksanteri
dc.contributor.authorRobertson, Duncan A.
dc.identifier.citationRahman , S , Vattulainen , A & Robertson , D A 2022 , Amplitude characteristics of littoral sea clutter data at K-band and W-band . in 2022 IEEE Radar Conference . , 9764262 , Proceedings of the IEEE Radar Conference , IEEE , 2022 IEEE Radar Conference (RadarConf'22) , New York , New York , United States , 21/03/22 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 276023475
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 80acd17b-e0da-4f9c-9b4c-b44367d1c7e4
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-4042-2772/work/113060882
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-5477-4218/work/113061064
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0003-1898-600X/work/120432946
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000821555200119
dc.descriptionFunding: UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council under grant EP/S032851/1.en
dc.description.abstractSea clutter data at millimeter wave frequencies are quite limited in the literature. Recent advancements in millimeter wave radar technology have created a potential for its use in maritime surveillance and autonomy. Hence, collecting data at this frequency range is of great interest to both academia and industry. This study reports on a field trial conducted at St Andrews in winter 2020 to collect littoral sea clutter data using K-band (24 GHz) and W-band (94 GHz) radar systems. Extensive data collection was done during the trial, where this work specifically concentrates on analysis of the amplitude characteristics of the sea clutter returns. Analysis of the dataset shows that the radar backscatter was heavily dominated by sea-spikes. The modal normalized radar cross section (NRCS) values for Bragg, burst and whitecap scattering are measured to be -47, -30 and -17 dB respectively at 24 GHz in horizontal polarization and -48, -26 and -12 dB respectively at 94 GHz in circular polarization, measured at grazing angles of 1-3°. The backscatter from the smooth surface is found to be below the noise floor equivalent NRCS (-65 dB). Also, the power spectrum analysis of range-time intensity plots is discussed, revealing information on the sea surface dynamics.
dc.relation.ispartof2022 IEEE Radar Conferenceen
dc.relation.ispartofseriesProceedings of the IEEE Radar Conferenceen
dc.rightsCopyright © 2022 IEEE. This work has been made available online in accordance with publisher policies or with permission. Permission for further reuse of this content should be sought from the publisher or the rights holder. This is the author created accepted manuscript following peer review and may differ slightly from the final published version. The final published version of this work is available at
dc.subjectSea clutteren
dc.subjectSea spikesen
dc.subjectBreaking wavesen
dc.subjectMillimeter waveen
dc.subjectQC Physicsen
dc.titleAmplitude characteristics of littoral sea clutter data at K-band and W-banden
dc.typeConference itemen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Physics and Astronomyen

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