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dc.contributor.authorHunter, T.R.
dc.contributor.authorBrogan, C.L.
dc.contributor.authorDe Buizer, J.M.
dc.contributor.authorTowner, A.P.M.
dc.contributor.authorDowell, C.D.
dc.contributor.authorMacleod, G.C.
dc.contributor.authorStecklum, B.
dc.contributor.authorCyganowski, C.J.
dc.contributor.authorEl-Abd, S.J.
dc.contributor.authorMcGuire, B.A.
dc.identifier.citationHunter , T R , Brogan , C L , De Buizer , J M , Towner , A P M , Dowell , C D , Macleod , G C , Stecklum , B , Cyganowski , C J , El-Abd , S J & McGuire , B A 2021 , ' The extraordinary outburst in the massive protostellar system NGC 6334 I-MM1 : strong increase in mid-infrared continuum emission ' , Astrophysical Journal Letters , vol. 912 , no. 1 , L17 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 273914910
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 54fac652-b204-4d07-b0da-9be3563316d3
dc.identifier.otherRIS: urn:EC9C6DC057571CD66C2A4F1BB0F78393
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85106064222
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000647140400001
dc.descriptionFinancial support for this work was provided by NASA through award #07_0156 issued by USRA. Based in part on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere under ESO program 089.C-0852(A).en
dc.description.abstractIn recent years, dramatic outbursts have been identified toward massive protostars via infrared and millimeter dust continuum and molecular maser emission. The longest lived outburst (>6 yr) persists in NGC 6334 I-MM1, a deeply embedded object with no near-IR counterpart. Using FORCAST and HAWC+ on SOFIA, we have obtained the first mid-IR images of this field since the outburst began. Despite being undetected in pre-outburst ground-based 18 μm images, MM1 is now the brightest region at all three wavelengths (25, 37, and 53 μm), exceeding the UCHII region MM3 (NGC 6334 F). Combining the SOFIA data with ALMA imaging at four wavelengths, we construct a spectral energy distribution of the combination of MM1 and the nearby hot core MM2. The best-fit Robitaille radiative transfer model yields a luminosity of (4.9 ± 0.8) × 104 L⊙. Accounting for an estimated pre-outburst luminosity ratio MM1:MM2 = 2.1 ± 0.4, the luminosity of MM1 has increased by a factor of 16.3 ± 4.4. The pre-outburst luminosity implies a protostar of mass 6.7 M⊙, which can produce the ionizing photon rate required to power the pre-outburst HCHII region surrounding the likely outbursting protostar MM1B. The total energy and duration of the outburst exceed the S255IR-NIRS3 outburst by a factor of 3, suggesting a different scale of event involving expansion of the protostellar photosphere (to 20 R⊙), thereby supporting a higher accretion rate (0.0023 M⊙ yr−1) and reducing the ionizing photon rate. In the grid of hydrodynamic models of Meyer et al., the combination of outburst luminosity and magnitude (3) places the NGC 6334 I-MM1 event in the region of moderate total accretion (~0.1–0.3 M⊙) and hence long duration (~40–130 yr).
dc.relation.ispartofAstrophysical Journal Lettersen
dc.rightsCopyright © 2021 American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. This work has been made available online in accordance with publisher policies or with permission. Permission for further reuse of this content should be sought from the publisher or the rights holder. This is the author created accepted manuscript following peer review and may differ slightly from the final published version. The final published version of this work is available at
dc.subjectStar formationen
dc.subjectFar infrared astronomyen
dc.subjectSubmilimeter astronomyen
dc.subjectMilimeter astronomyen
dc.subjectInfrared astronomyen
dc.subjectInterstellar masersen
dc.subjectStellar jetsen
dc.subjectDust continuum emissionen
dc.subjectRadio continuum emissionen
dc.subjectRadio interferometryen
dc.subjectQB Astronomyen
dc.subjectQC Physicsen
dc.titleThe extraordinary outburst in the massive protostellar system NGC 6334 I-MM1 : strong increase in mid-infrared continuum emissionen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Physics and Astronomyen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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