Standard of civilization, nomadism and territoriality in nineteenth-century international society
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In this chapter, the encounter between the Russian Empire and the nomads of the Eurasian steppe in the nineteenth century is analyzed using the theoretical framework of the standard of civilization. The creation of the Westphalian state-model in Europe in the seventeenth century, linked to the later emergence of the notion of the standard of civilization led to the ‘othering’ of the nomads of the Eurasian steppe as barbarians, as a threat to the borders of civilized Europe. The chapter presents also an argument to define ‘territoriality’ as not only an institution of international society of the time but also as a distinctive quality and requirement for being considered ‘civilized’. In this analytical framework, the nomads become the ‘other’, the ‘alien’, the ‘menace’, onto which projections of rationality and modernity were cast in order to prevent threats to Russia’s European and civilized identity. The chapter sheds light on the encounter between ‘fixed’ and ‘mobile’ units in the course of expansion of international society; contextualizes the role played by nomadic tribes in resisting the application of Westphalian spatial categories in the Eurasian space; and scrutinizes what the role of nomads was in constructing a European, civilized identity.
Costa Buranelli , F 2020 , Standard of civilization, nomadism and territoriality in nineteenth-century international society . in J Levin (ed.) , Nomad-State Relationships in International Relations : Before and After Borders . Palgrave Macmillan , Cham , pp. 77-99 , 12th Pan-European Conference on International Relations , Prague , Czech Republic , 12/09/18 . https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-28053-6_5conference
Nomad-State Relationships in International Relations
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