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dc.contributor.authorDavison, Benjamin
dc.contributor.authorCowton, Tom
dc.contributor.authorSole, Andrew
dc.contributor.authorCottier, Finlo
dc.contributor.authorNienow, Pete
dc.identifier.citationDavison , B , Cowton , T , Sole , A , Cottier , F & Nienow , P 2022 , ' Modelling the effect of submarine iceberg melting on glacier-adjacent water properties ' , The Cryosphere , vol. 16 , no. 4 , pp. 1181–1196 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 278789223
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: d5ac0db4-d41c-45fb-82c7-8abfcb549d2a
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0003-1668-7372/work/111210290
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0001-9483-2956/work/111210307
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000778880200001
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85128302281
dc.descriptionFunding: This research has been supported by the Scottish Alliance for Geoscience, Environment and Society and the University of St Andrews (PhD studentship).en
dc.description.abstractThe rate of ocean-driven retreat of Greenland's tidewater glaciers remains highly uncertain in predictions of future sea level rise, in part due to poorly constrained glacier-adjacent water properties. Icebergs and their meltwater contributions are likely important modifiers of fjord water properties, yet their effect is poorly understood. Here, we use a 3-D ocean circulation model, coupled to a submarine iceberg melt module, to investigate the effect of submarine iceberg melting on glacier-adjacent water properties in a range of idealised settings. Submarine iceberg melting can modify glacier-adjacent water properties in three principal ways: (1) substantial cooling and modest freshening in the upper ∼50 m of the water column; (2) warming of Polar Water at intermediate depths due to iceberg melt-induced upwelling of warm Atlantic Water and; (3) warming of the deeper Atlantic Water layer when vertical temperature gradients through this layer are steep (due to vertical mixing of warm water at depth) but cooling of the Atlantic Water layer when vertical temperature gradients are shallow. The overall effect of iceberg melt is to make glacier-adjacent water properties more uniform with depth. When icebergs extend to, or below, the depth of a sill at the fjord mouth, they can cause cooling throughout the entire water column. All of these effects are more pronounced in fjords with higher iceberg concentrations and deeper iceberg keel depths. These iceberg melt-induced changes to glacier-adjacent water properties will reduce rates of glacier submarine melting near the surface, increase them in the Polar Water layer, and cause typically modest impacts in the Atlantic Water layer. These results characterise the important role of submarine iceberg melting in modifying ice sheet-ocean interaction and highlight the need to improve representations of fjord processes in ice sheet scale models.
dc.relation.ispartofThe Cryosphereen
dc.rightsCopyright © Author(s) 2022. This work is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.en
dc.subjectGE Environmental Sciencesen
dc.subjectQE Geologyen
dc.titleModelling the effect of submarine iceberg melting on glacier-adjacent water propertiesen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Environmental Change Research Groupen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Bell-Edwards Geographic Data Instituteen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Geography & Sustainable Developmenten
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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