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dc.contributor.authorMacAulay, Jamie
dc.contributor.authorKingston, Al
dc.contributor.authorCoram, Alex
dc.contributor.authorOswald, Michael
dc.contributor.authorSwift, Rene
dc.contributor.authorGillespie, Doug
dc.contributor.authorNorthridge, Simon
dc.identifier.citationMacAulay , J , Kingston , A , Coram , A , Oswald , M , Swift , R , Gillespie , D & Northridge , S 2022 , ' Passive acoustic tracking of the three-dimensional movements and acoustic behaviour of toothed whales in close proximity to static nets ' , Methods in Ecology and Evolution , vol. 13 , no. 6 , 13828 , pp. 1250-1264 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 277965610
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 30004850-07ed-4eff-949b-778f4ff1cbd9
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0001-9628-157X/work/110423145
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-7402-3462/work/110423187
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85126844961
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000772233900001
dc.descriptionFunding: Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, UK Government (Grant Number(s): ME6052; Grant recipient(s): Jamie Macaulay, Allen Kingston, Simon Northridge, Alexander Coram). University of St Andrews.en
dc.description.abstract1. Entanglement in net fisheries (static and drift) is the largest known cause of direct anthropogenic mortality to many small cetacean species, including harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), in UK waters. Despite this, little is known about the behaviour of small cetaceans in proximity to nets. 2. We have developed a passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) system for tracking the fine-scale three-dimensional (3D) movements of echolocating cetaceans around actively fishing nets by localising their acoustic clicks. The system consists of two compact four-channel acoustic recorders with sample-synchronised sensor packages that use 3D motion tracking technology to accurately calculate log orientation, depth, water temperature and ambient light level. Two recorders were used in tandem, with each one attached to and floating above the net floatline. The system can be deployed during normal fishing operations by a trained researcher or experienced fisheries observer. Recordings were analysed in PAMGuard software and the 3D positions of echolocating animals in the vicinity of the system were calculated using an acoustic particle filter-based localisation method. 3. We present findings from four deployments in UK waters (each 1–2 days in duration) in which 12 distinct harbour porpoise encounters yielded a sufficient number of detected clicks to track their movements around the net. The tracks show a variety of behaviours, including multiple instances of animals actively foraging in close proximity to the fishing net. 4. We show that a relatively inexpensive PAM system, which is practical to deploy from active fishing vessels, is capable of providing highly detailed data on harbour porpoise behaviour around nets. As harbour porpoises are the one of the most difficult species to localise, this methodology is likely to be suitable for elucidating the behaviour of many other toothed whale species in a variety of situations.
dc.relation.ispartofMethods in Ecology and Evolutionen
dc.rightsCopyright © 2022 The Authors. Methods in Ecology and Evolution published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Ecological Society. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.en
dc.subjectAcoustic localisationen
dc.subjectGill neten
dc.subjectHarbour porpoiseen
dc.subjectPassive acoustic monitoringen
dc.subjectGC Oceanographyen
dc.subjectQH301 Biologyen
dc.titlePassive acoustic tracking of the three-dimensional movements and acoustic behaviour of toothed whales in close proximity to static netsen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Biologyen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Scottish Oceans Instituteen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Sea Mammal Research Uniten
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Marine Alliance for Science & Technology Scotlanden
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Bioacoustics groupen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Sound Tags Groupen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Coastal Resources Management Groupen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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