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dc.contributor.authorChong, Sin Wang
dc.identifier.citationChong , S W 2017 , ' A three-stage model for implementing focused written corrective feedback ' , TESL Canada Journal , vol. 34 , no. 2 , pp. 71-82 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 277677856
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 56766fef-6b8a-4f15-a0cd-d48a27a16ade
dc.identifier.otherBibtex: 04ea33d8e93341ef95026ca51f8d499a
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-4519-0544/work/107718464
dc.description.abstractThis article aims to show how the findings from written corrective feedback (WCF) research can be applied in practice. One particular kind of WCF—focused WCF— is brought into the spotlight. The article first summarizes major findings from focused WCF research to reveal the potential advantages of correcting a few preselected language items instead of all errors. It is argued that the majority of the focused WCF research, which has adopted an experimental or quasi-experimental design, has had limited pedagogical implications for second language (L2) writing teachers. Thus, the second section puts forward a three-stage model for operationalizing focused WCF, which includes selecting the focus, teaching the focus, and reinforcing the focus. Pedagogical ideas will be included in each of the stages to give writing teachers a clear idea of how to justify the selection of a language focus and implement WCF in a systematic manner.
dc.relation.ispartofTESL Canada Journalen
dc.rightsCopyright (c) 2018 TESL Canada Journal. This work has been made available online in accordance with publisher policies or with permission. Permission for further reuse of this content should be sought from the publisher or the rights holder. This is the final published version of the work, which was originally published at
dc.subjectWritten corrective feedbacken
dc.subjectDirect feedbacken
dc.subjectFocused feedbacken
dc.subjectError correctionen
dc.subjectL Educationen
dc.titleA three-stage model for implementing focused written corrective feedbacken
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. International Education Instituteen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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