Lutein and zeaxanthin intake during pregnancy and visual function in offspring at 11-12 years of age
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(1) Background: Lutein and zeaxanthin (L&Z) are essential dietary nutrients that are a crucial component of the human macula, contributing to visual functioning. They easily cross the placental barrier, so that retinal deposition commences during foetal development. This study aims to assess associations between maternal L&Z intake during pregnancy and offspring visual function at 11-12 years. (2) Methods: Using the Spanish INfancia y Medio Ambiente Project (INMA) Sabadell birth cohort, 431 mother-child pairs were analysed. L&Z data were obtained from food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) at week 12 and 32 of pregnancy, alongside other nutritional and sociodemographic covariates. Contrast vision (CS) and visual acuity (VA) were assessed using the automated Freiburg Acuity and Contrast Testing (FRACT) battery. Low CS and VA were defined as being below the 20th cohort centile. Associations were explored using multiple logistic regression. (3) Results: After controlling for potential confounders, L&Z intake during the 1st and 3rd trimester did not reveal any statistically significant association with either CS or VA in offspring at age 11/12 years. (4) Conclusions: No evidence of a long-term association between L&Z intake during pregnancy and visual function in offspring was found. Further larger long-term studies including blood L&Z levels are required to confirm this result.
Anderson , M , Romaguera , D , Saint-Amour , D , Fossati , S , Fochs , S , Pey , N , Vrijheid , M & Julvez , J 2022 , ' Lutein and zeaxanthin intake during pregnancy and visual function in offspring at 11-12 years of age ' , Nutrients , vol. 14 , no. 4 , 872 . https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14040872
Copyright: © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
DescriptionFunding: This study has been funded by Instituto de Salud Carlos III through the projects “CP14/00108, PI16/00261 and PI21/00266” (Co-funded by European Regional Development Fund “A way to make Europe”). Jordi Julvez holds the Miguel Servet-II contract (CPII19/00015) awarded by the Instituto de Salud Carlos III (co-funded by the European Social Fund “Investing in your future”). This study was also funded by grants from Instituto de Salud Carlos III (Red INMA G03/176; CB06/02/0041; PI041436; PI081151 incl. FEDER funds; PI12/01890 incl. FEDER funds; CP13/00054 incl. FEDER funds; PI15/00118 incl. FEDER funds; CP16/00128 incl. FEDER funds; PI16/00118 incl. FEDER funds; PI16/00261 incl. FEDER funds; PI17/01340 incl. FEDER funds; PI18/00547 incl. FEDER funds), CIBERESP, Generalitat de Catalunya-CIRIT 1999SGR 00241, Generalitat de Catalunya-AGAUR (2009 SGR 501, 2014 SGR 822), Fundació La marató de TV3 (090430), Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (SAF2012-32991 incl. FEDER funds), Agence Nationale de Securite Sanitaire de l’Alimentation de l’Environnement et du Travail (1262C0010; EST-2016 RF-21), EU Commission (261357, 308333, 603794 and 634453). We acknowledge support from the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation and the State Research Agency through the “Centro de Excelencia Severo Ochoa 2019-2023” Program (CEX2018-000806-S), and support from the Generalitat de Catalunya through the CERCA Program.
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