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dc.contributor.authorPembury Smith, M. Q. R.
dc.contributor.authorRuxton, G. D.
dc.identifier.citationPembury Smith , M Q R & Ruxton , G D 2021 , ' How fast is a snail’s pace? The influences of size and substrate on gastropod speed of locomotion ' , Journal of Zoology , vol. 314 , no. 1 , pp. 12-19 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 272680716
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: f33dcf43-0c86-4590-828c-a114ed05de67
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0001-8943-6609/work/88267533
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85100318419
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000613861000001
dc.description.abstractTerrestrial gastropods display monotaxic direct crawling. During locomotion, smooth muscle contraction stimulates a series of pedal waves that move along the ventral surface of the foot. These waves interact with a thin layer of mucus produced by the foot, propelling the animal forward. Although the mechanism by which this process occurs has been well studied, less is known about how morphological or environmental factors affect this process, and ultimately how they may alter the speed of propulsion. In this study, we tested the influences of body size, substrate type, and substrate orientation on crawling speed in the terrestrial snail Cornu aspersum. We found that substrate texture and orientation had a strong effect on speed, whereas snail body size and the presence of a conspecific trail did not. Crawling speed across rough sandpaper was the most striking, showing a clear inversely proportional relationship between the size of abrasive particle and speed. We suggest that this may be the result of substrate attributes interfering with mucus adhesion or mucus production, subsequently affecting locomotion, although gait choice or the frequency and length of each pedal wave may also play a role.
dc.relation.ispartofJournal of Zoologyen
dc.rightsCopyright © 2021 The Zoological Society of London. This work has been made available online in accordance with publisher policies or with permission. Permission for further reuse of this content should be sought from the publisher or the rights holder. This is the author created accepted manuscript following peer review and may differ slightly from the final published version. The final published version of this work is available at
dc.subjectAdhesive locomotionen
dc.subjectQH301 Biologyen
dc.titleHow fast is a snail’s pace? The influences of size and substrate on gastropod speed of locomotionen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.School of Biologyen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Centre for Biological Diversityen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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