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dc.contributor.authorPirotta, Enrico
dc.contributor.authorThomas, Len
dc.contributor.authorCosta, Daniel
dc.contributor.authorHall, Ailsa Jane
dc.contributor.authorHarris, Catriona M
dc.contributor.authorHarwood, John
dc.contributor.authorKraus, Scott
dc.contributor.authorMiller, Patrick James
dc.contributor.authorMoore, Michael
dc.contributor.authorPhotopoulou, Theoni
dc.contributor.authorRolland, Rosalind
dc.contributor.authorSchwacke, Lori
dc.contributor.authorSimmons, Samantha
dc.contributor.authorSouthall, Brandon
dc.contributor.authorTyack, Peter Lloyd
dc.identifier.citationPirotta , E , Thomas , L , Costa , D , Hall , A J , Harris , C M , Harwood , J , Kraus , S , Miller , P J , Moore , M , Photopoulou , T , Rolland , R , Schwacke , L , Simmons , S , Southall , B & Tyack , P L 2022 , ' Understanding the combined effects of multiple stressors : a new perspective on a longstanding challenge ' , Science of the Total Environment , vol. 821 , 153322 .
dc.descriptionThis work was supported by the Office of Naval Research [grant numbers N000142012697, N000142112096]; and the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program [grant numbers RC20-1097, RC20-7188, RC21-3091].en
dc.description.abstractWildlife populations and their habitats are exposed to an expanding diversity and intensity of stressors caused by human activities, within the broader context of natural processes and increasing pressure from climate change. Estimating how these multiple stressors affect individuals, populations, and ecosystems is thus of growing importance. However, their combined effects often cannot be predicted reliably from the individual effects of each stressor, and we lack the mechanistic understanding and analytical tools to predict their joint outcomes. We review the science of multiple stressors and present a conceptual framework that captures and reconciles the variety of existing approaches for assessing combined effects. Specifically, we show that all approaches lie along a spectrum, reflecting increasing assumptions about the mechanisms that regulate the action of single stressors and their combined effects. An emphasis on mechanisms improves analytical precision and predictive power but could introduce bias if the underlying assumptions are incorrect. A purely empirical approach has less risk of bias but requires adequate data on the effects of the full range of anticipated combinations of stressor types and magnitudes. We illustrate how this spectrum can be formalised into specific analytical methods, using an example of North Atlantic right whales feeding on limited prey resources while simultaneously being affected by entanglement in fishing gear. In practice, case-specific management needs and data availability will guide the exploration of the stressor combinations of interest and the selection of a suitable trade-off between precision and bias. We argue that the primary goal for adaptive management should be to identify the most practical and effective ways to remove or reduce specific combinations of stressors, bringing the risk of adverse impacts on populations and ecosystems below acceptable thresholds.
dc.relation.ispartofScience of the Total Environmenten
dc.subjectAdaptive Managementen
dc.subjectClimate changeen
dc.subjectCombined effectsen
dc.subjectMechanistic modellingen
dc.subjectMultiple stressorsen
dc.subjectPopulation consequencesen
dc.subjectGE Environmental Sciencesen
dc.subjectGF Human ecology. Anthropogeographyen
dc.subjectQH301 Biologyen
dc.subjectSDG 13 - Climate Actionen
dc.titleUnderstanding the combined effects of multiple stressors : a new perspective on a longstanding challengeen
dc.typeJournal itemen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Biologyen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Centre for Research into Ecological & Environmental Modellingen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Sea Mammal Research Uniten
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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