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dc.contributor.authorSiegal, Eilidh
dc.contributor.authorHooker, Sascha Kate
dc.contributor.authorIsojunno, Saana
dc.contributor.authorMiller, Patrick James
dc.identifier.citationSiegal , E , Hooker , S K , Isojunno , S & Miller , P J 2022 , ' Beaked whales and state-dependent decision-making : how does body condition affect the trade-off between foraging and predator avoidance? ' , Proceedings of the Royal Society B , vol. 289 , no. 1967 , 20212539 .
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-7518-3548/work/107286960
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-2212-2135/work/107286985
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-7833-302X/work/107287256
dc.descriptionThis work was supported by the US Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (award RC-2337), the US Office of Naval Research and the French DGA.en
dc.description.abstractBody condition is central to how animals balance foraging with predator avoidance—a trade-off that fundamentally affects animal fitness. Animals in poor condition may accept greater predation risk to satisfy current foraging ‘needs’, while those in good condition may be more risk averse to protect future ‘assets’. These state-dependent behavioural predictions can help interpret responses to human activities, but are little explored in marine animals. This study investigates the influence of body condition on how beaked whales trade-off foraging and predator avoidance. Body density (indicating lipid-energy stores) was estimated for 15 foraging northern bottlenose whales tagged near Jan Mayen, Norway. Composite indices of foraging (diving and echolocation clicks) and anti-predation (long ascents, non-foraging dives and silent periods reducing predator eavesdropping) were negatively related. Experimental sonar exposures led to decreased foraging and increased risk aversion, confirming a foraging/perceived safety trade-off. However, lower lipid stores were not related to a decrease in predator avoidance versus foraging, i.e. worse condition animals did not prioritize foraging. Individual differences (personalities) or reproductive context could offer alternative explanations for the observed state-behaviour relationships. This study provides evidence of foraging/predator-avoidance trade-offs in a marine top predator and demonstrates that animals in worse condition might not always take more risks.
dc.relation.ispartofProceedings of the Royal Society Ben
dc.subjectBeaked whaleen
dc.subjectAnti-predator behaviouren
dc.subjectState-dependent decision-makingen
dc.subjectBody conditionen
dc.subjectGC Oceanographyen
dc.subjectQH301 Biologyen
dc.subjectQP Physiologyen
dc.subjectSDG 14 - Life Below Wateren
dc.titleBeaked whales and state-dependent decision-making : how does body condition affect the trade-off between foraging and predator avoidance?en
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Biologyen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Marine Alliance for Science & Technology Scotlanden
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Scottish Oceans Instituteen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Institute of Behavioural and Neural Sciencesen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Sea Mammal Research Uniten
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Centre for Social Learning & Cognitive Evolutionen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Bioacoustics groupen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Centre for Research into Ecological & Environmental Modellingen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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