Show simple item record

Files in this item


Item metadata

dc.contributor.authorRoberts, Anthea
dc.contributor.authorSt John, Taylor
dc.identifier.citationRoberts , A & St John , T 2022 , ' Complex designers and emergent design : reforming the investment treaty system ' , American Journal of International Law , vol. 116 , no. 1 , pp. 96-149 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 275967681
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: bed4f519-c33a-459b-aa5a-4d02c3c0110a
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85116301251
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-8582-5444/work/106838393
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000742347200005
dc.description.abstractHow do actors undertake institutional design in complex systems? Scholars recognize that many international regimes are becoming increasingly complex. Yet relatively little is known about how actors design or redesign institutions amid this complexity. As participant-observers in the UN negotiations on investment treaty reform, we have watched state officials and other participants grapple with this question for several years. To help explain what we have observed, we conceptualize these participants as complex designers – actors who seek to design and redesign institutions within complex adaptive systems. We then formulate three emergent design principles that seem to guide their approach as they aim to create: flexible structures, balanced content, and adaptive management processes. In a dynamic era marked by unpredictability, division, and complex transnational challenges, we believe these concepts may prove to be increasingly relevant in global governance.
dc.relation.ispartofAmerican Journal of International Lawen
dc.rightsCopyright © The Author(s), 2021. Published by Cambridge University Press for The American Society of International Law. This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (, which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.en
dc.subjectJX International lawen
dc.titleComplex designers and emergent design : reforming the investment treaty systemen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of International Relationsen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Centre for Global Law and Governanceen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

This item appears in the following Collection(s)

Show simple item record