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dc.contributor.authorNitta, Nariaki V
dc.contributor.authorMulligan, Tamitha
dc.contributor.authorKilpua, Emilia K J
dc.contributor.authorLynch, Benjamin J
dc.contributor.authorMierla, Marilena
dc.contributor.authorO'Kane, Jennifer
dc.contributor.authorPagano, Paolo
dc.contributor.authorPalmerio, Erika
dc.contributor.authorPomoell, Jens
dc.contributor.authorRichardson, Ian R
dc.contributor.authorRodriguez, Luciano
dc.contributor.authorRouillard, Alexis P
dc.contributor.authorSinha, Suvadip
dc.contributor.authorSrivastava, Nandita
dc.contributor.authorTalpeanu, Dana-Camelia
dc.contributor.authorYardley, Stephanie L
dc.contributor.authorZhukov, Andrei N
dc.identifier.citationNitta , N V , Mulligan , T , Kilpua , E K J , Lynch , B J , Mierla , M , O'Kane , J , Pagano , P , Palmerio , E , Pomoell , J , Richardson , I R , Rodriguez , L , Rouillard , A P , Sinha , S , Srivastava , N , Talpeanu , D-C , Yardley , S L & Zhukov , A N 2021 , ' Understanding the origins of problem geomagnetic storms associated with "stealth" coronal mass ejections ' , Space Science Reviews , vol. 217 , no. 8 , 82 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 277402084
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: ace96fec-c684-46b5-a1fa-52bab09bbd46
dc.identifier.otherJisc: 872daa8ba0694291af224b4d2140de08
dc.identifier.otherpmcid: PMC8566663
dc.identifier.otherpmid: 34789949
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85118743114
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000714371100001
dc.descriptionFunding: This work was supported by NASA AIA contract NNG04EA00C, and NRL STEREO/SECCHI contracts N00173-15-C-2016 and N00173-19-C-2011, all to LMSAL. N.V.N. and T.M. were supported by NASA grant NNX17AB73G. E.K.J.K. and J.P. acknowledge the Finnish Centre of Excellence in Research of Sustainable Space (FORESAIL; Academy of Finland grant no. 312390), and the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme Project 724391 (SolMAG). E.K.J.K. also acknowledges Academy of Finland Project 310445 (SMASH). B.J.L. acknowledges support from NASA 80NSSC19K0088 and NSF AGS 1851945. M.M., L.R., D.-C.T., and A.N.Z. thank the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Belgian Federal Science Policy Office (BELSPO) for their support in the framework of the PRODEX Programme. E.P. is supported by the NASA Living With a Star (LWS) Jack Eddy Postdoctoral Fellowship Program, administered by UCAR’s Cooperative Programs for the Advancement of Earth System Science (CPAESS) under award no. NNX16AK22G. I.G.R. acknowledges support from the ACE and STEREO missions and NASA program NNH17ZDA001N-LWS. D.-C.T. was funded by the Ph.D. fellowship of the Research Foundation – Flanders (FWO), contract no. 1118920N. S.L.Y. would like to acknowledge STFC for support via the consolidated grant SMC1/YST037 and NERC for funding via the SWIMMR Aviation Risk and Modelling (SWARM) Project, grant no. NE/V002899/1.en
dc.description.abstractGeomagnetic storms are an important aspect of space weather and can result in significant impacts on space- and ground-based assets. The majority of strong storms are associated with the passage of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) in the near-Earth environment. In many cases, these ICMEs can be traced back unambiguously to a specific coronal mass ejection (CME) and solar activity on the frontside of the Sun. Hence, predicting the arrival of ICMEs at Earth from routine observations of CMEs and solar activity currently makes a major contribution to the forecasting of geomagnetic storms. However, it is clear that some ICMEs, which may also cause enhanced geomagnetic activity, cannot be traced back to an observed CME, or, if the CME is identified, its origin may be elusive or ambiguous in coronal images. Such CMEs have been termed "stealth CMEs". In this review, we focus on these "problem" geomagnetic storms in the sense that the solar/CME precursors are enigmatic and stealthy. We start by reviewing evidence for stealth CMEs discussed in past studies. We then identify several moderate to strong geomagnetic storms (minimum Dst
dc.relation.ispartofSpace Science Reviewsen
dc.rightsCopyright © The Author(s) 2021. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.en
dc.subjectCoronal Mass Ejectionsen
dc.subjectSpace Weatheren
dc.subjectMagnetic Stormsen
dc.subjectLow-Coronal Signaturesen
dc.subjectQB Astronomyen
dc.subjectQC Physicsen
dc.titleUnderstanding the origins of problem geomagnetic storms associated with "stealth" coronal mass ejectionsen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.contributor.sponsorScience & Technology Facilities Councilen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Statisticsen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Applied Mathematicsen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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