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dc.contributor.authorNeamah, Maan M.
dc.contributor.authorMir-Sanchis, Ignacio
dc.contributor.authorLópez-Sanz, María
dc.contributor.authorAcosta, Sonia
dc.contributor.authorBaquedano, Ignacio
dc.contributor.authorHaag, Andreas F.
dc.contributor.authorMarina, Alberto
dc.contributor.authorAyora, Silvia
dc.contributor.authorPenadés, José R.
dc.identifier.citationNeamah , M M , Mir-Sanchis , I , López-Sanz , M , Acosta , S , Baquedano , I , Haag , A F , Marina , A , Ayora , S & Penadés , J R 2017 , ' Sak and Sak4 recombinases are required for bacteriophage replication in Staphylococcus aureus ' , Nucleic Acids Research , vol. 45 , no. 11 , pp. 6507-6519 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 276906311
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: cf6b9323-a0d4-4fff-b8fe-36e7bbd4cbe2
dc.identifier.otherBibtex: 10.1093/nar/gkx308
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85027270460
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-6783-0231/work/104252950
dc.descriptionMedical Research Council (UK) [MR/M003876/1]; Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC, UK) [BB/N002873/1]; from European Union [ERC-ADG-2014 Proposal n° 670932 Dut-signal to J.R.P.]; MINECO (Spain) [BFU2012-39879-C02-02, BFU2015-67065-P to S.A.]; MINECO (Spain) [BIO2013-42619-P]; Valencian Government [Prometeo II/2014/029 to A.M.]. Funding for open access charge: Medical Research Council (UK).en
dc.description.abstractDNA-single strand annealing proteins (SSAPs) are recombinases frequently encoded in the genome of many bacteriophages. As SSAPs can promote homologous recombination among DNA substrates with an important degree of divergence, these enzymes are involved both in DNA repair and in the generation of phage mosaicisms. Here, analysing Sak and Sak4 as representatives of two different families of SSAPs present in phages infecting the clinically relevant bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, we demonstrate for the first time that these enzymes are absolutely required for phage reproduction. Deletion of the genes encoding these enzymes significantly reduced phage replication and the generation of infectious particles. Complementation studies revealed that these enzymes are required both in the donor (after prophage induction) and in the recipient strain (for infection). Moreover, our results indicated that to perform their function SSAPs require the activity of their cognate single strand binding (Ssb) proteins. Mutational studies demonstrated that the Ssb proteins are also required for phage replication, both in the donor and recipient strain. In summary, our results expand the functions attributed to the Sak and Sak4 proteins, and demonstrate that both SSAPs and Ssb proteins are essential for the life cycle of temperate staphylococcal phages.
dc.relation.ispartofNucleic Acids Researchen
dc.rightsCopyright © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.en
dc.subjectQR Microbiologyen
dc.titleSak and Sak4 recombinases are required for bacteriophage replication in Staphylococcus aureusen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.School of Medicineen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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