Space telescope and optical reverberation mapping project. XII. Broad-line region modeling of NGC 5548
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We present geometric and dynamical modeling of the broad line region (BLR) for the multi-wavelength reverberation mapping campaign focused on NGC 5548 in 2014. The data set includes photometric and spectroscopic monitoring in the optical and ultraviolet, covering the Hβ, C iv, and Lyα broad emission lines. We find an extended disk-like Hβ BLR with a mixture of near-circular and outflowing gas trajectories, while the C iv and Lyα BLRs are much less extended and resemble shell-like structures. There is clear radial structure in the BLR, with C iv and Lyα emission arising at smaller radii than the Hβ emission. Using the three lines, we make three independent black hole mass measurements, all of which are consistent. Combining these results gives a joint inference of log10 (MBH/M☉) = 7.64 +0.21 -0.18. We examine the effect of using the V band instead of the UV continuum light curve on the results and find a size difference that is consistent with the measured UV–optical time lag, but the other structural and kinematic parameters remain unchanged, suggesting that the V band is a suitable proxy for the ionizing continuum when exploring the BLR structure and kinematics. Finally, we compare the Hβ results to similar models of data obtained in 2008 when the active galactic nucleus was at a lower luminosity state. We find that the size of the emitting region increased during this time period, but the geometry and black hole mass remained unchanged, which confirms that the BLR kinematics suitably gauge the gravitational field of the central black hole.
Williams , P R , Pancoast , A , Treu , T , Brewer , B J , Peterson , B M , Barth , A J , Malkan , M A , Rosa , G D , Horne , K , Kriss , G A , Arav , N , Bentz , M C , Cackett , E M , Bontà , E D , Dehghanian , M , Done , C , Ferland , G J , Grier , C J , Kaastra , J , Kara , E , Kochanek , C S , Mathur , S , Mehdipour , M , Pogge , R W , Proga , D , Vestergaard , M , Waters , T , Adams , S M , Anderson , M D , Arévalo , P , Beatty , T G , Bennert , V N , Bigley , A , Bisogni , S , Borman , G A , Boroson , T A , Bottorff , M C , Brandt , W N , Breeveld , A A , Brotherton , M , Brown , J E , Brown , J S , Canalizo , G , Carini , M T , Clubb , K I , Comerford , J M , Corsini , E M , Crenshaw , D M , Croft , S , Croxall , K V , Deason , A J , Lorenzo-Cáceres , A D , Denney , K D , Dietrich , M , Edelson , R , Efimova , N V , Ely , J , Evans , P A , Fausnaugh , M M , Filippenko , A V , Flatland , K , Fox , O D , Gardner , E , Gates , E L , Gehrels , N , Geier , S , Gelbord , J M , Gonzalez , L , Gorjian , V , Greene , J E , Grupe , D , Gupta , A , Hall , P B , Henderson , C B , Hicks , S , Holmbeck , E , Holoien , T W-S , Hutchison , T , Im , M , Jensen , J J , Johnson , C A , Joner , M D , Jones , J , Kaspi , S , Kelly , P L , Kennea , J A , Kim , M , Kim , S , Kim , S C , King , A , Klimanov , S A , Knigge , C , Krongold , Y , Lau , M W , Lee , J C , Leonard , D C , Li , M , Lira , P , Lochhaas , C , Ma , Z , Macinnis , F , Manne-Nicholas , E R , Mauerhan , J C , McGurk , R , McHardy , I M , Montuori , C , Morelli , L , Mosquera , A , Mudd , D , Müller–Sánchez , F , Nazarov , S V , Norris , R P , Nousek , J A , Nguyen , M L , Ochner , P , Okhmat , D N , Papadakis , I , Parks , J R , Pei , L , Penny , M T , Pizzella , A , Poleski , R , Pott , J -U , Rafter , S E , Rix , H-W , Runnoe , J , Saylor , D A , Schimoia , J S , Scott , B , Sergeev , S G , Shappee , B J , Shivvers , I , Siegel , M , Simonian , G V , Siviero , A , Skielboe , A , Somers , G , Spencer , M , Starkey , D , Stevens , D J , Sung , H-I , Tayar , J , Tejos , N , Turner , C S , Uttley , P , Van Saders , J , Vaughan , S A , Vican , L , Villanueva , S , Villforth , C , Weiss , Y , Woo , J-H , Yan , H , Young , S , Yuk , H , Zheng , W , Zhu , W & Zu , Y 2020 , ' Space telescope and optical reverberation mapping project. XII. Broad-line region modeling of NGC 5548 ' , Astrophysical Journal , vol. 902 , no. 1 , 74 . https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/abbad7
© 2020. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. This work has been made available online in accordance with publisher policies or with permission. Permission for further reuse of this content should be sought from the publisher or the rights holder. This is the author created accepted manuscript following peer review and may differ slightly from the final published version. The final published version of this work is available at https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/abbad7
DescriptionSupport for HST program No. GO-13330 was provided by NASA through a grant from the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. Research by P.R.W. and T.T. is supported by NSF grants AST-1412315 and AST-1907208. T.T. and P.R.W. acknowledge support from the Packard Foundation through a Packard Fellowship to T.T. Research by AJB was supported by NSF grant AST-1907290. G.F. and M.D. acknowledge support by NSF (1816537, 1910687), NASA (17-ATP17-0141, 19-ATP19-0188), and STScI (HST-AR-15018, HST-AR-14556). M.I. acknowledges the support form the NRF grant, No. 2020R1A2C3011091, funded by the Korea government (MSIT). M.V. gratefully acknowledges support from the Independent Research Fund Denmark via grant No. DFF 8021-00130. C.S.K. is supported by NSF grants AST-1908952 and AST-1814440. V.N.B. acknowledges assistance from a NASA grant associated with HST proposal GO 15215, a NASA ADAP grant (grant # 80NSSC19K1016) and a National Science Foundation (NSF) Research at Undergraduate Institutions (RUI) grant (AST-1909297). D.J.S. acknowledges funding support from the Eberly Research Fellowship from The Pennsylvania State University Eberly College of Science. The Center for Exoplanets and Habitable Worlds is supported by the Pennsylvania State University, the Eberly College of Science, and the Pennsylvania Space Grant Consortium. A.V.F.'s group at U.C. Berkeley is grateful for the financial support of NSF grant AST-1211916, the TABASGO Foundation, the Christopher R. Redlich Fund, and the Miller Institute for Basic Research in Science (U.C. Berkeley).
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