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dc.contributor.authorColl-Lladó, Clara
dc.contributor.authorMittermayer, Felix
dc.contributor.authorWebb, Paul B.
dc.contributor.authorAllison, Nicola
dc.contributor.authorClemmesen, Catriona
dc.contributor.authorStiasny, Martina
dc.contributor.authorBridges, Christopher
dc.contributor.authorGottler, Gwendolin
dc.contributor.authorGarcia de la Serrana Castillo, Daniel
dc.identifier.citationColl-Lladó , C , Mittermayer , F , Webb , P B , Allison , N , Clemmesen , C , Stiasny , M , Bridges , C , Gottler , G & Garcia de la Serrana Castillo , D 2021 , ' Pilot study to investigate the effect of long-term exposure to high p CO 2 on adult cod ( Gadus morhua ) otolith morphology and calcium carbonate deposition ' , Fish Physiology and Biochemistry , vol. First Online .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 275954643
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: b1109982-8a91-4bcb-90f3-8580284e60f1
dc.identifier.otherPubMed: 34585317
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0003-3720-1917/work/101217902
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0003-2532-344X/work/101218120
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85115885800
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000701781300002
dc.descriptionFunding was provided by the Bonus Baltic Sea research and development programme (Art 185) BIO-C3 project, funded jointly by the EU and the BMBF (Grant No. 03F0682A), BIOACID project (Biological Impacts of Ocean Acidification: Grant No. 03F0655K) funded by the German Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF), and the EU AQUAEXCEL transnational access grant for aquaculture infrastructures. Part of the work was supported by the FINEAQUA-project (Grant Number 12212001) funded by the Program for the Future Economy (financed by the European Regional Development Fund, the Federal Republic of Germany and the state of Schleswig–Holstein), the Centre for Marine Aquaculture, Tromsø, and the Marine Alliance for Science and Technology for Scotland (MASTS) Small Grant initiative (SG330 and SG407), and their support especially by the staff of the centre for Marine Aquaculture is gratefully acknowledged. MASTS is funded by the Scottish Funding Council (grant reference HR09011) and contributing institutions. PBW would like to thank the Royal Society for the award of an Industry Fellowship. DGS is a Serra Húnter Tenure-Track lecturer.en
dc.description.abstractTo date the study of ocean acidification on fish otolith formation has been mainly focused on larval and juvenile stages. In the present pilot study, wild-captured adult Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) were exposed to two different levels of pCO2, 422µatm (ambient, low pCO2) or 1091µatm (high pCO2), for a period of 30 weeks (from mid-October to early April 2014–2015) in order to study the effects on otolith size, shape and CaCO3 crystallization amongst other biological parameters. We found that otoliths from cod exposed to high pCO2 were slightly smaller (− 3.4% in length; − 3.3% in perimeter), rounder (− 2.9% circularity and + 4% roundness) but heavier (+ 5%) than the low pCO2 group. Interestingly, there were different effects in males and females; for instance, male cods exposed to high pCO2 exhibited significant changes in circularity (− 3%) and roundness (+ 4%) compared to the low pCO2 males, but without significant changes on otolith dimensions, while females exposed to high pCO2 had smaller otoliths as shown for length (− 5.6%), width (− 2%), perimeter (− 3.5%) and area (− 4.8%). Furthermore, while the majority of the otoliths analysed showed normal aragonite deposition, 10% of fish exposed to 1091µatm of pCO2 had an abnormal accretion of calcite, suggesting a shift on calcium carbonate polymorph crystallization in some individuals under high pCO2 conditions. Our preliminary results indicate that high levels of pCO2 in adult Atlantic cod might affect otolith growth in a gender-specific way. Our findings reveal that otoliths from adult cod are affected by ocean acidification, and we believe that the present study will prompt further research into this currently under-explored area
dc.relation.ispartofFish Physiology and Biochemistryen
dc.rightsCopyright © The Author(s) 2021. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.en
dc.subjectAdult coden
dc.subjectOcean acidificationen
dc.subjectGC Oceanographyen
dc.subjectSDG 14 - Life Below Wateren
dc.titlePilot study to investigate the effect of long-term exposure to high pCO2 on adult cod (Gadus morhua) otolith morphology and calcium carbonate depositionen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.contributor.sponsorThe Royal Societyen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Chemistryen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Earth & Environmental Sciencesen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Scottish Oceans Instituteen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. St Andrews Isotope Geochemistryen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Marine Alliance for Science & Technology Scotlanden
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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