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dc.contributor.authorMaget, A
dc.contributor.authorDalkner, N
dc.contributor.authorHamm, C
dc.contributor.authorBengesser, S A
dc.contributor.authorFellendorf, F T
dc.contributor.authorPlatzer, M
dc.contributor.authorQueissner, R
dc.contributor.authorBirner, A
dc.contributor.authorLenger, M
dc.contributor.authorMörkl, S
dc.contributor.authorKohlhammer-Dohr, A
dc.contributor.authorRieger, A
dc.contributor.authorSeidl, M
dc.contributor.authorMendel, L
dc.contributor.authorFärber, T
dc.contributor.authorWetzlmair, L
dc.contributor.authorSchwalsberger, K
dc.contributor.authorAmberger-Otti, D V
dc.contributor.authorSchöggl, H
dc.contributor.authorLahousen, T
dc.contributor.authorLeitner-Afschar, B
dc.contributor.authorUnterweger, R
dc.contributor.authorZelzer, S
dc.contributor.authorMangge, H
dc.contributor.authorReininghaus, E Z
dc.identifier.citationMaget , A , Dalkner , N , Hamm , C , Bengesser , S A , Fellendorf , F T , Platzer , M , Queissner , R , Birner , A , Lenger , M , Mörkl , S , Kohlhammer-Dohr , A , Rieger , A , Seidl , M , Mendel , L , Färber , T , Wetzlmair , L , Schwalsberger , K , Amberger-Otti , D V , Schöggl , H , Lahousen , T , Leitner-Afschar , B , Unterweger , R , Zelzer , S , Mangge , H & Reininghaus , E Z 2021 , ' Sex differences in zonulin in affective disorders and associations with current mood symptoms ' , Journal of Affective Disorders , vol. 294 , pp. 441-446 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 276116653
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 04bd8755-87bc-4493-b67f-0212a159aaf0
dc.identifier.otherPubMed: 34320451
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85111032899
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-5862-9691/work/100901668
dc.descriptionZonulin measurement was funded by Institut Allergosan (Graz, Austria).en
dc.description.abstractIntroduction: The bidirectional connection between the brain and the gut within psychiatric entities has gained increasing scientific attention over the last years. As a regulator of intestinal permeability, zonulin acts as a key player on the interface of this interplay. Like several psychiatric disorders, intestinal permeability was associated with inflammation in previous findings. Methods: In this study we explored differences in zonulin serum levels in currently depressed (n = 55) versus currently euthymic (n = 37) individuals with an affective disorder. Further, we explored sex differences and possible influences on zonulin and affective symptoms like medication, age, body mass index, and smoking status. Results: Serum zonulin was significantly higher in females than in men independent from affective status (z = -2.412, p = .016). More specifically, females in the euthymic subgroup had higher zonulin levels than euthymic men (z = -2.114, p = .035). There was no difference in zonulin serum levels in individuals taking or not taking a specific psychopharmacotherapy. We found no correlation between zonulin serum levels and depression severity. Discussion: Increased serum zonulin levels as a proxy for increased intestinal permeability in women may indicate a state of elevated susceptibility for depression-inducing stimuli.
dc.relation.ispartofJournal of Affective Disordersen
dc.rightsCopyright © 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (
dc.subjectAffective disordersen
dc.subjectIntestinal permeabilityen
dc.subjectBipolar disorderen
dc.subjectRC0321 Neuroscience. Biological psychiatry. Neuropsychiatryen
dc.subjectRM Therapeutics. Pharmacologyen
dc.titleSex differences in zonulin in affective disorders and associations with current mood symptomsen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Medicineen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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