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dc.contributor.authorMavrovouna, Veronica
dc.contributor.authorPenacchio, Olivier
dc.contributor.authorAllen, William L.
dc.identifier.citationMavrovouna , V , Penacchio , O & Allen , W L 2021 , ' Orienting to the sun improves camouflage for bilaterally symmetrical prey ' , Biological Journal of the Linnean Society , vol. Advance Articles , blab130 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 276022171
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 7edeaa58-9b4e-46a2-a33a-9f0f056a4138
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85121123109
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000728145600002
dc.description.abstractHere, we investigate the camouflage consequences of animal orientation behaviour. Shadows can be a conspicuous cue to the presence of prey. For bilaterally symmetrical animals, light field modelling indicates that camouflage will be improved when an animal orients its longitudinal axis directly towards or away from the sun, because the appearance of shadows is minimized. We test this prediction with a field predation experiment, in which wild birds hunt for artificial camouflaged prey oriented with the longitudinal axis either parallel or perpendicular to the sun. We find that prey oriented parallel to the sun are 3.93 times more likely to survive than prey oriented perpendicular to the sun. This result demonstrates the strong orientation dependence of camouflage. Given the dramatic difference in survival of prey with different orientations, we suggest that camouflage should be investigated as an important determinant of the positional behaviour of animals.
dc.relation.ispartofBiological Journal of the Linnean Societyen
dc.rightsCopyright © 2021 The Linnean Society of London. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.en
dc.subjectVisual ecologyen
dc.subjectQL Zoologyen
dc.titleOrienting to the sun improves camouflage for bilaterally symmetrical preyen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Psychology and Neuroscienceen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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