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dc.contributor.authorAzuara-Blanco, Augusto
dc.contributor.authorBurr, Jennifer M.
dc.contributor.authorCochran, Claire
dc.contributor.authorRamsay, Craig
dc.contributor.authorVale, Luke
dc.contributor.authorFoster, Paul
dc.contributor.authorFriedman, David
dc.contributor.authorQuayyum, Zahidul
dc.contributor.authorLai, Jimmy
dc.contributor.authorNolan, Winnie
dc.contributor.authorAung, Tin
dc.contributor.authorChew, Paul
dc.contributor.authorMcPherson, Gladys
dc.contributor.authorMcDonald, Alison
dc.contributor.authorNorrie, John
dc.contributor.authorEffectiveness in Angle-closure Glaucoma of Lens Extraction (EAGLE) Study Group
dc.identifier.citationAzuara-Blanco , A , Burr , J M , Cochran , C , Ramsay , C , Vale , L , Foster , P , Friedman , D , Quayyum , Z , Lai , J , Nolan , W , Aung , T , Chew , P , McPherson , G , McDonald , A , Norrie , J & Effectiveness in Angle-closure Glaucoma of Lens Extraction (EAGLE) Study Group 2011 , ' The effectiveness of early lens extraction with intraocular lens implantation for the treatment of primary angle-closure glaucoma (EAGLE) : study protocol for a randomized controlled trial ' , Trials , vol. 12 , 133 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 16572918
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 647e8173-bc72-4744-ace5-e44451eb3f11
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000291998100001
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 79956223077
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-9478-738X/work/60196169
dc.description.abstractBackground: Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness. Although primary open-angle glaucoma is more common, primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) is more likely to result in irreversible blindness. By 2020, 5.3 million people worldwide will be blind because of PACG. The current standard care for PACG is a stepped approach of a combination of laser iridotomy surgery (to open the drainage angle) and medical treatment (to reduce intraocular pressure). If these treatments fail, glaucoma surgery (eg, trabeculectomy) is indicated. It has been proposed that, because the lens of the eye plays a major role in the mechanisms leading to PACG, early clear lens extraction will improve glaucoma control by opening the drainage angle. This procedure might reduce the need for drugs and glaucoma surgery, maintain good visual acuity, and improve quality of life compared with standard care. EAGLE aims to evaluate whether early lens extraction improves patient-reported, clinical outcomes, and cost-effectiveness, compared with standard care. Methods/Design: EAGLE is a multicentre pragmatic randomized trial. All people presenting to the recruitment centres in the UK and east Asia with newly diagnosed PACG and who are at least 50 years old are eligible. The primary outcomes are EQ-5D, intraocular pressure, and incremental cost per quality adjusted life year (QALY) gained. Other outcomes are: vision and glaucoma-specific patient-reported outcomes, visual acuity, visual field, angle closure, number of medications, additional surgery (e. g., trabeculectomy), costs to the health services and patients, and adverse events. A single main analysis will be done at the end of the trial, after three years of follow-up. The analysis will be based on all participants as randomized (intention to treat). 400 participants (200 in each group) will be recruited, to have 90% power at 5% significance level to detect a difference in EQ-5D score between the two groups of 0.05, and a mean difference in intraocular pressure of 1.75 mm Hg. The study will have 80% power to detect a difference of 15% in the glaucoma surgery rate. Trial Registration: ISRCTN44464607.
dc.rights© 2011 Azuara-Blanco et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.en
dc.subjectVisual function questionnaireen
dc.subjectRE Ophthalmologyen
dc.subjectSDG 3 - Good Health and Well-beingen
dc.titleThe effectiveness of early lens extraction with intraocular lens implantation for the treatment of primary angle-closure glaucoma (EAGLE) : study protocol for a randomized controlled trialen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.contributor.sponsorMedical Research Councilen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Medicineen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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