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dc.contributor.authorBode, Bela Ernest
dc.contributor.authorNorman, David
dc.contributor.editorPereira , A.
dc.contributor.editorTavares , P.
dc.contributor.editorLimão-Vieira , P.
dc.identifier.citationBode , B E & Norman , D 2019 , Pulsed Electron-Electron Double Resonance (PELDOR) and Electron Spin Echo Envelope Modulation (ESEEM) spectroscopy in bioanalysis . in A Pereira , P Tavares & P Limão-Vieira (eds) , Radiation in bioanalysis : spectroscopic techniques and theoretical methods . vol. 8 , Bioanalysis (Advanced materials, methods, and devices) , Springer, Cham , Cham , pp. 195-212 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 261353252
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 4eed0e48-3c03-4c78-aef4-cc7e77b29c65
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-3384-271X/work/62311816
dc.description.abstractElectron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) has a long history with the first spectrum being reported in 1945 (Zavoisky 1945) and is adopted widely, in its original continuous wave (CW) form, as a tool for the analysis of both biological systems and materials bearing unpaired electrons. The related technique of “Nuclear Magnetic Resonance” (NMR) developed rapidly thanks to the technological advances that enabled the use of pulsed radiofrequency and Fourier Transformation (FT). In EPR, the challenges posed by needing to generate short and very powerful microwave pulses and the fast relaxation times, of the electron spin, led to a much slower adaptation of pulsed excitation schemes. Nevertheless, early experiments using an NMR spectrometer with a greatly reduced magnetic field had shown the feasibility of pulse EPR (Blume 1958). It was not until the availability of commercial systems in the 1980s that this technique began to be applied more widely outside laboratories focused on the development of instrumentation. Over the last decades the application of pulse EPR has seen a very wide variety of systems studied from biological systems to those of materials science. This development was paralleled by a constant innovation in EPR instrumentation and methodology. Recent success in using arbitrary waveform generators (AWGs) and the commercial implementation and user uptake indicates that EPR is just entering a new era with tremendous opportunities offered by bespoke excitation schemes.
dc.publisherSpringer, Cham
dc.relation.ispartofRadiation in bioanalysisen
dc.relation.ispartofseriesBioanalysis (Advanced materials, methods, and devices)en
dc.rightsCopyright © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019. This work has been made available online in accordance with publisher policies or with permission. Permission for further reuse of this content should be sought from the publisher or the rights holder. This is the author created accepted manuscript following peer review and may differ slightly from the final published version. The final published version of this work is available at
dc.subjectQD Chemistryen
dc.titlePulsed Electron-Electron Double Resonance (PELDOR) and Electron Spin Echo Envelope Modulation (ESEEM) spectroscopy in bioanalysisen
dc.typeBook itemen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.School of Chemistryen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Biomedical Sciences Research Complexen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Centre of Magnetic Resonanceen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.EaSTCHEMen

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