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dc.contributor.authorHorta-Lacueva, Quentin J.-B.
dc.contributor.authorSnorrason, Sigurður S.
dc.contributor.authorMorrissey, Michael B.
dc.contributor.authorLeblanc, Camille A.-L.
dc.contributor.authorKapralova, Kalina H.
dc.identifier.citationHorta-Lacueva , Q J-B , Snorrason , S S , Morrissey , M B , Leblanc , C A-L & Kapralova , K H 2021 , ' Multivariate analysis of morphology, behaviour, growth and developmental timing in hybrids brings new insights into the divergence of sympatric Arctic charr morphs ' , BMC Ecology and Evolution , vol. 21 , 170 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 275774914
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 16eb3533-e549-40fa-8aa6-ba538d8fd7c4
dc.identifier.otherRIS: urn:4B1ECA7B61E6A753711148C675F278BE
dc.identifier.otherRIS: Horta-Lacueva2021
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85114446275
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000694899000001
dc.descriptionThis work was fully funded by the Icelandic Centre of Research, RANNÍS (Icelandic Research Fund grant no.173802-051).en
dc.description.abstractBackground: Studying the development of fitness related traits in hybrids from populations diverging in sympatry is a fundamental approach to understand the processes of speciation. However, such traits are often affected by covariance structures that complicate the comprehension of these processes, especially because the interactive relationships between traits of different nature (e.g. morphology, behaviour, life-history) remain largely unknown in this context. In a common garden setup, we conducted an extensive examination of a large suit of traits putatively involved in the divergence of two morphs of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus), and investigated the consequences of potential patterns of trait covariance on the phenotype of their hybrids. These traits were measured along ontogeny and involved growth, yolk sac resorption, developmental timing (hatching and the onset of exogeneous feeding), head morphology and feeding behaviour. Results: Growth trajectories provided the strongest signal of phenotypic divergence between the two charr. Strikingly, the first-generation hybrids did not show intermediate nor delayed growth but were similar to the smallest morph, suggesting parental biases in the inheritance of growth patterns. However, we did not observe extensive multivariate trait differences  between the two morphs and their hybrids. Growth was linked to head morphology (suggesting that morphological variations in early juveniles relate to simple allometric effects) but this was the only strong signal of covariance observed between all the measured traits. Furthermore, we did not report evidence for differences in overall phenotypic variance between morphs, nor for enhanced phenotypic variability in their hybrids. Conclusion: Our study shed light on the multivariate aspect of development in a context of adaptive divergence. The lack of evidence for the integration of most traits into a single covariance structure suggested that phenotypic constraints may not always favour nor impede divergence toward ecological niches differing in numerous physical and ecological variables, as observed in the respective habitats of the two charr. Likewise, the role of hybridization as a disruptive agent of trait covariance may not necessarily be significant in the evolution of populations undergoing resource polymorphism.
dc.relation.ispartofBMC Ecology and Evolutionen
dc.rightsCopyright © The Author(s) 2021. Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.en
dc.subjectAdaptive divergenceen
dc.subjectEcological speciationen
dc.subjectTrait covarianceen
dc.subjectResource polymorphismen
dc.subjectGC Oceanographyen
dc.subjectHA Statisticsen
dc.titleMultivariate analysis of morphology, behaviour, growth and developmental timing in hybrids brings new insights into the divergence of sympatric Arctic charr morphsen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.School of Biologyen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews.Centre for Biological Diversityen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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