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dc.contributor.authorFarhoudian, Ali
dc.contributor.authorRadfar, Seyed Ramin
dc.contributor.authorMohaddes Ardabili, Hossein
dc.contributor.authorRafei, Parnian
dc.contributor.authorEbrahimi, Mohsen
dc.contributor.authorKhojasteh Zonoozi, Arash
dc.contributor.authorDe Jong, Cornelis A J
dc.contributor.authorVahidi, Mehrnoosh
dc.contributor.authorYunesian, Masud
dc.contributor.authorKouimtsidis, Christos
dc.contributor.authorArunogiri, Shalini
dc.contributor.authorHansen, Helena
dc.contributor.authorBrady, Kathleen T
dc.contributor.authorISAM Global Survey Consortium (ISAM-GSC)
dc.contributor.authorPotenza, Marc N
dc.contributor.authorBaldacchino, Alexander Mario
dc.contributor.authorEkhtiari, Hamed
dc.identifier.citationFarhoudian , A , Radfar , S R , Mohaddes Ardabili , H , Rafei , P , Ebrahimi , M , Khojasteh Zonoozi , A , De Jong , C A J , Vahidi , M , Yunesian , M , Kouimtsidis , C , Arunogiri , S , Hansen , H , Brady , K T , ISAM Global Survey Consortium (ISAM-GSC) , Potenza , M N , Baldacchino , A M & Ekhtiari , H 2021 , ' A global survey on changes in the supply, price, and use of illicit drugs and alcohol, and related complications during the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic ' , Frontiers in Psychiatry , vol. 12 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 275670158
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 5a944e5c-ac05-4dd0-a717-a5fb65d49a7b
dc.identifier.otherRIS: urn:7CD521D247FC2A52AF0EEE9E2422A63B
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-5388-7376/work/99466007
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85113236018
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000780939800001
dc.description.abstractBackground and Aims : COVID-19 has infected more than 77 million people worldwide and impacted the lives of many more, with a particularly devastating impact on vulnerable populations, including people with substance use disorders (SUDs). Quarantines, travel bans, regulatory changes, social distancing, and "lockdown" measures have affected drug and alcohol supply chains and subsequently their availability, price, and use patterns, with possible downstream effects on presentations of SUDs and demand for treatment. Given the lack of multicentric epidemiologic studies, we conducted a rapid global survey within the International Society of Addiction Medicine (ISAM) network in order to understand the status of substance-use patterns during the current pandemic. Design : Cross-sectional survey. Setting : Worldwide. Participants : Starting on April 4, 2020 during a 5-week period, the survey received 185 responses from 77 countries. Measurements : To assess addiction medicine professionals' perceived changes in drug and alcohol supply, price, use pattern, and related complications during the COVID-19 pandemic. Findings : Participants reported (among who answered "decreased" or "increased") a decrease in drug supply (69.0%) and at the same time an increase in price (95.3%) globally. With respect to changes in use patterns, an increase in alcohol (71.7%), cannabis (63.0%), prescription opioids (70.9%), and sedative/hypnotics (84.6%) use was reported, while the use of amphetamines (59.7%), cocaine (67.5%), and opiates (58.2%) was reported to decrease overall. Conclusions : The global report on changes in the availability, use patterns, and complications of alcohol and drugs during the COVID-19 pandemic should be considered in making new policies and in developing mitigating measures and guidelines during the current pandemic (and probable future ones) in order to minimize risks to people with SUD.
dc.relation.ispartofFrontiers in Psychiatryen
dc.rightsCopyright © 2021 Farhoudian, Radfar, Mohaddes Ardabili, Rafei, Ebrahimi, Khojasteh Zonoozi, De Jong, Vahidi, Yunesian, Kouimtsidis, Arunogiri, Hansen, Brady, ISAM Global Survey Consortium (ISAM-GSC), Potenza, Baldacchino and Ekhtiari. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.en
dc.subjectBehavioral addictionen
dc.subjectGlobal surveyen
dc.subjectIllicit drug marketen
dc.subjectSubstance use disorderen
dc.subjectRA0421 Public health. Hygiene. Preventive Medicineen
dc.titleA global survey on changes in the supply, price, and use of illicit drugs and alcohol, and related complications during the 2020 COVID-19 pandemicen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Medicineen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Centre for Minorities Research (CMR)en
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Population and Behavioural Science Divisionen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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