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dc.contributor.authorHolmes, Stephen R.
dc.identifier.citationHolmes , S R 2021 , ' When did John Smyth embrace 'Arminianism' and was the first Baptist congregation 'Particular'? ' , Baptist Quarterly , vol. 52 , no. 4 , pp. 146-157 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 274776873
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 820ec6f7-eb02-47dc-86ec-f34016ad6b9e
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0003-4222-8209/work/99115955
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85113556728
dc.description.abstractUnsurprisingly given his schooling in Elizabethan Puritanism, John Smyth’s early works show that he held to standard Calvinistic positions on election, reprobation, and original sin. By 1610 he had clearly repudiated these positions. This essay explores when and why he changed his mind. Textual evidence shows that he was still holding Calvinistic convictions when he baptised himself and the others, and then formed the first Baptist church in (probably) 1609. The reason for his repudiation of Calvinism some months after that is less certain, but I argue that it was probably down to an engagement with the Waterlander Mennonites that came after the baptisms. I therefore argue that, contrary to common report, the first Baptist congregation was ‘Particular’, not ‘General’, although it quickly changed, and that the long-standing question of whether the Mennonites had a significant effect on early Baptist development can be answered in the affirmative.
dc.relation.ispartofBaptist Quarterlyen
dc.rightsCopyright © 2021 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives License (, which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, and is not altered, transformed, or built upon in any way.en
dc.subjectJohn Smythen
dc.subjectThomas Helwysen
dc.subjectBaptist beginningsen
dc.subjectGeneral Baptistsen
dc.subjectWaterlander Mennonitesen
dc.subjectBL Religionen
dc.titleWhen did John Smyth embrace 'Arminianism' and was the first Baptist congregation 'Particular'?en
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Centre for Higher Education Researchen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Divinityen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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