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dc.contributor.authorMilton, Karen
dc.contributor.authorKelly, Michael
dc.contributor.authorBaker, Graham
dc.contributor.authorCleland, Claire
dc.contributor.authorCope, Andy
dc.contributor.authorCraig, Neil
dc.contributor.authorFoster, Charlie
dc.contributor.authorHunter, Ruth
dc.contributor.authorKee, Frank
dc.contributor.authorKelly, Paul
dc.contributor.authorNightingale, Glenna
dc.contributor.authorTurner, Kieran
dc.contributor.authorWilliams, Andrew James
dc.contributor.authorWoodcock, James
dc.contributor.authorJepson, Ruth
dc.identifier.citationMilton , K , Kelly , M , Baker , G , Cleland , C , Cope , A , Craig , N , Foster , C , Hunter , R , Kee , F , Kelly , P , Nightingale , G , Turner , K , Williams , A J , Woodcock , J & Jepson , R 2021 , ' Use of natural experimental studies to evaluate 20mph speed limits in two major UK cities ' , Journal of Transport and Health , vol. 22 , 101141 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 275141509
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 85076c09-9b26-4dc5-bc96-0e52b9a9e9fd
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-2175-8836/work/97473892
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85110583558
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000697940200012
dc.descriptionThis research was funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR), grant number 15/82/12.en
dc.description.abstractIntroduction Reductions in traffic speed can potentially offer multiple health and public health benefits. In 2016, implementation of 20mph (30kph) speed limit interventions began in Edinburgh (city-wide) and Belfast (city centre). The aims of this paper are to describe 1) the broad theoretical approach and design of two natural experimental studies to evaluate the 20mph speed limits in Edinburgh and Belfast and 2) how these studies allowed us to test and explore theoretical mechanisms of 20mph speed limit interventions. Methods The evaluation consisted of several work packages, each with different research foci, including the political decision-making processes that led to the schemes, their implementation processes, outcomes (including traffic speed, perceptions of safety, and casualties) and cost effectiveness. We used a combination of routinely and locally collected quantitative data and primary quantitative and qualitative data. Results The evaluation identified many contextual factors influencing the likelihood of 20mph speed limits reaching the political agenda. There were substantial differences between the two sites in several aspects related to implementation. Reductions in speed resulted in significant reductions in collisions and casualties, particularly in Edinburgh, which had higher average speed at baseline. The monetary value of collisions and casualties prevented are likely to exceed the costs of the intervention and thus the overall balance of costs and benefits is likely to be favourable. Conclusions Innovative study designs, including natural experiments, are important for assessing the impact of ‘real world’ public health interventions. Using multiple methods, this project enabled a deeper understanding of not only the effects of the intervention but the factors that explain how and why the intervention and the effects did or did not occur. Importantly it has shown that 20mph speed limits can lead to reductions in speed, collisions and casualties, and are therefore an effective public health intervention.
dc.relation.ispartofJournal of Transport and Healthen
dc.rightsCopyright © 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license.en
dc.subjectSpeed limiten
dc.subjectRA Public aspects of medicineen
dc.subjectSDG 3 - Good Health and Well-beingen
dc.titleUse of natural experimental studies to evaluate 20mph speed limits in two major UK citiesen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.description.versionPublisher PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. School of Medicineen
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of St Andrews. Population and Behavioural Science Divisionen
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden

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